Test Catalog

Test Id : HMGCR

3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme-A (HMG-CoA) Reductase, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating patients with suspected necrotizing autoimmune myopathy


Measuring 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) antibodies

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Chemiluminescence Immunoassay (CIA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

HMG-CoA Reductase Ab, S

Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching


Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM)

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing


Ordering Guidance

NMS1 / Necrotizing Myopathy Evaluation, Serum is the preferred first tier test for identification of antibodies specific for necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (HMGCOA-IgG and SRP-IgG). This initial evaluation includes signal recognition particle (SRP) antibodies performed using tissue indirect immunofluorescence, which increases the clinical sensitivity as compared to SRP immunoblot methodologies.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Collection Container/Tube: 

Preferred: Red top 

Acceptable: Serum gel 

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial 

Specimen Volume: 2 mL 

Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot serum into a plastic vial. 

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Frozen 28 days
Ambient 72 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating patients with suspected necrotizing autoimmune myopathy


Measuring 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) antibodies

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is a serious but rare muscle disease strongly associated with autoantibodies to either signal recognition protein (SRP) or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR).(1) NAM typically manifests with subacute proximal limb muscle weakness and persistently elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations, but slower onsets can occur and complicate diagnosis. Muscle biopsies in affected patients can demonstrate necrotic and regenerating myofibers without inflammatory infiltrates, suggesting the diagnosis.(2) However, sampling issues and lack of access to persons having expertise in obtaining, preparing, and interpreting muscle biopsy specimens may delay a diagnosis.(3)


Early identification of NAM and subsequent aggressive immune-modulating therapy is critical.(1,3) Discovery of SRP- or HMGCR-IgG autoantibodies can aid in establishing an earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation. In addition, the discovery of SRP or HMGCR autoantibodies should prompt a search for an underlying malignancy.(4) Serial testing for these autoantibodies can delay diagnosis with the discovery of either antibody aiding in establishing an earlier diagnosis and treatment initiation.(1,3)


The clinical onsets are not specific to NAM, consisting of proximal limb weakness in association with an elevated serum creatinine kinase, with or without exposure to lipid-lowering statin medications.(1,3-9) The clinical presentation can be confused with forms of inflammatory (dermatomyositis, polymyositis), toxic, metabolic, or even neurodegeneration (ie, muscular dystrophy) and the diagnosis delayed without serological testing by SRP- or HMGCR-autoantibody testing. Panel testing of both HMGCR and SRP autoantibodies is the preferred strategy for the best patient care.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<20.0 CU

Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Seropositivity for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) autoantibodies supports the clinical diagnosis of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM). Confirmation with muscle biopsy is recommended. A paraneoplastic basis should be considered, according to age, sex, and other risk factors.(4) In cases of NAM, immune therapy is required and often multiple simultaneously utilized immunotherapies are needed to successfully treat patients.

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Negative results do not exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM). Only approximately 35% of cases of NAM are associated with autoantibodies against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR). The remainder of cases are either positive for signal recognition protein (SRP) autoantibodies (approximately 20%-30%) or are seronegative (approximately 35%).


Very rarely HMGCR antibodies can be detected in diseases other than NAM. A muscle biopsy is recommended.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Kassardjian CD, Lennon VA, Alfugham NB, et al: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes of Necrotizing Autoimmune Myopathy. JAMA Neurol 2015 Sep;72(9):996-1003

2. Emslie-Smith A M, Engel A G: Necrotizing myopathy with pipestem capillaries, microvascular deposition of the complement membrane attack complex (MAC), and minimal cellular infiltration. Neurology 1991;41(6):936-939

3. Ramanathan S, Langguth D, Hardy T, et al: Clinical course and treatment of anti-HMGCR antibody-associated necrotizing autoimmune myopathy. Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm 2015 June;2(3):e96

4. Allenbach Y, Keraen J, Bouvier AM, et al: High risk of cancer in autoimmune necrotizing myopathies: usefulness of myositis specific antibody. Brain 2016 Aug;139(Pt 8):2131-2135

5. Christopher-Stine L, Casciola-Rosen L, Hong G, et al: A novel autoantibody recognizing 200-kd and 100-kd proteins is associated with an immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy. Arthritis Rheum 2010 May;62(9):2757-2766

6. Mammen AL, Chung T, Christopher-Stine L, et al: Autoantibodies against 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in patients with statin-associated autoimmune myopathy. Arthritis Rheum 2011 Mar;63(3):713-721

7. Hengstman GJ, ter Laak HJ, Vree Egberts WT, et al: Anti-signal recognition particle autoantibodies: marker of a necrotising myopathy. Ann Rheum Dis 2006;65(12):1635-1638

8. Miller T, Al-Lozi MT, Lopate G, Pestronk A: Myopathy with antibodies to the signal recognition particle: clinical and pathological features. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2002 Oct;73(4):420-428

9. Watanabe Y, Uruha A, Suzuki S, et al: Clinical features and prognosis in anti-SRP and anti-HMGCR necrotising myopathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2016 Oct;87(10):1038-1044

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

IgG antibodies to 3-Hydroxy-3- Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) are detected by a chemiluminescent assay using the Inova BIO-FLASH instrument. HMGCR antigen is coated on to paramagnetic beads, which are stored in the reagent cartridge lyophilized. When the assay cartridge is ready to be used for the first time, a buffer solution is added to the tube containing the beads, and the beads are resuspended with the buffer. The reagent cartridge is then loaded onto the BIO-FLASH instrument. A patient serum sample is diluted 1:17 by the instrument in a disposable plastic cuvette. An aliquot of the diluted patient serum, HMGCR-coupled beads, and assay buffer are combined into a second cuvette, and mixed. This cuvette is incubated at 37 degrees C. The beads are then magnetized and washed several times. Isoluminol conjugated anti-human IgG antibody is then added to the cuvette, and incubated at 37 degrees C. Again, the beads are magnetized and washed repeatedly. The isoluminol conjugate produces a luminescent reaction when "Trigger" reagents are added to the cuvette. The light produced from this reaction is measured as relative light units (RLU) by the BIO-FLASH optical system. RLU values are proportional to the amount of bound isoluminol conjugate, which in turn is proportional to the amount of anti-HMGCR antibodies bound to the antigen on the beads. The QUANTA Flash HMGCR assay utilizes a predefined lot specific Master Curve that is uploaded into the instrument through the reagent cartridge barcode. Based on the results obtained by running two calibrators, an instrument specific Working Curve is created, which is used by the software to calculate chemiluminescent units (CU) from the RLU value obtained for each sample.(Package insert: QUANTA Flash HMGCR 701333 Inova Diagnostics, Inc, San Diego ,CA V04, 09/2018)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information


Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

2 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

28 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


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Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.


LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
HMGCR HMG-CoA Reductase Ab, S 93493-5
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
607414 HMG-CoA Reductase Ab, S 93493-5

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports