Test Catalog

Test Id : ALB24

Albumin, 24 Hour, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating diabetic patients to assess the potential for early onset of nephropathy

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Immunoturbidity

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Albumin, 24 Hr, U

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Albumin

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Necessary Information

24-Hour volume is required.

ORDER QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

Question ID Description Answers
VL41 Urine Volume
TM43 Collection Duration

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies: Sarstedt 5 mL Aliquot Tube (T914)

Container/Tube: Plastic urine tube

Specimen Volume: 4 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect urine for 24 hours.

2. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.

3. Mix well before taking 4-mL aliquot.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens for multiple collections.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Renal Diagnostics Test Request (T830) with the specimen.

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative or application of temperature controls must occur within 4 hours of completion of the collection.

Ambient

OK

Refrigerate

Preferred

Frozen

OK

50% Acetic Acid

No

Boric Acid

OK

Diazolidinyl Urea

No

6M Hydrochloric Acid

No

6M Nitric Acid

No

Sodium Carbonate

No

Thymol

OK

Toluene

No

 

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
Ambient 7 days
Frozen 7 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating diabetic patients to assess the potential for early onset of nephropathy

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Albumin excretion increases in patients with diabetes who are destined to develop diabetic nephropathy. More importantly, at this phase of increased albumin excretion before overt proteinuria develops, therapeutic maneuvers can be expected to significantly delay, or possibly prevent, development of nephropathy. These maneuvers include aggressive blood pressure maintenance (particularly with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), aggressive blood sugar control, and possibly decreased protein intake. Thus, there is a need for addressing small amounts of urinary albumin excretion (in the range of 30-300 mg/day, ie, microalbuminuria).

 

The National Kidney Foundation convened an expert panel to recommend guidelines for the management of patients with diabetes and microalbuminuria. These guidelines recommend that all type 1 diabetic patients older than 12 years and all type 2 diabetic patients younger than 70 years should have their urine tested for microalbuminuria yearly when they are under stable glucose control.(1)

 

The preferred specimen is a 24-hour collection, but a 10-hour overnight collection (9 p.m.-7 a.m.) or a random collection are acceptable. Recent studies have shown that correcting albumin for creatinine excretion rates has similar discriminatory value with respect to diabetic renal involvement, and it is now suggested that an albumin/creatinine ratio from a random urine specimen is a valid screening tool.(2)

 

Several studies have addressed the question of whether this needs to be a fasting urine, an exercised urine, or an overnight urine specimen. From these studies, it is clear that the first-morning urine specimen is less sensitive, but more specific. A positive result should be confirmed by a first-morning random or 24-hour timed urine specimen.

 

Studies have also shown that microalbuminuria is a marker of generalized vascular disease and is associated with stroke and heart disease.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

24-Hour excretion: <30 mg/24 hours

Excretion rate: <20 mcg/min

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An albumin excretion rate of more than 30 mg/24 hours is considered to be microalbuminuric. By definition, the upper end of microalbuminuria is thought to be 300 mg/24 hours. Although this level has not been rigorously defined, it is felt that at this level it is more difficult to change the course of diabetic nephropathy. Laboratory normal values agree with the 30 mg/24 hour level. A normal excretion rate of 20 mcg/minute has also been established in the literature and is consistent with the laboratory data. Thus, microalbuminuria has been defined at 30 to 300 mg/24 hours.

 

The literature has defined the albumin/creatinine ratio (mg/g) below 17 as normal for males and below 25 for females(2) and is consistent with the laboratory's normal data. A ratio of albumin to creatinine of 300 or more indicates overt albuminuria. Thus, microalbuminuria has been defined as an albumin/creatinine ratio of 17 to 299 for males and 25 to 299 for females.

 

Due to biologic variability, any patient who has an albumin/creatinine ratio or urinary albumin excretion rate in the positive microalbuminuria range should have this confirmed with a second specimen. If there is discrepancy, a third specimen is recommended. If 2 of 3 results are in the positive microalbuminuria range, this is evidence for incipient nephropathy and warrants increased efforts at glucose control, aggressive blood pressure control, and institution of therapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (if the patient can tolerate it).

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Urine may be collected and transported ambient, refrigerated, frozen, or preserved in thymol, boric acid, or sodium carbonate.

 

Urine collected in or that has had nitric, hydrochloric, or acetic acid added is unacceptable because of precipitation of albumin by these acids.

 

Urine collected during menses may contain excess albumin and collection during this time should be avoided.

 

Heavy exercise may increase albumin excretion and should be avoided during collection. Normal values apply to a non-exercised state.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Bennett PH, Haffner S, Kasiske BL, et al: Screening and management of microalbuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus: recommendations to the Scientific Advisory Board of the National Kidney Foundation from an ad hoc committee of the Council on Diabetes Mellitus of the National Kidney Foundation. Am J Kidney Dis. 1995;25:107-112

2. Zelmanovitz T, Gross JL, Oliveira JR, et al: The receiver operating characteristics curve in the evaluation of a random urine specimen as a screening test for diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care. 1997;20:516-519

3. Krolewski AS, Laffel LM, Krolewski M, et al: Glycosylated hemoglobin and the risk of microalbuminuria in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 1995;332:1251-1255

4.Miller GW, Bruns DE, Hortin GL, et al: Current Issues in Measurement and Reporting of Urinary Albumin Excretion. Clin Chem. 2009;55(1):24-38

5. Lamb EJ, Jones GRD: Kidney functions tests. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:480-488

6. Sacks DB: Diabetes mellitus. In: Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds.Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. In: Elsevier; 2018:1197-1199

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Albumin is measured by immunoturbidimetry utilizing antibody to human albumin in an automated immunoprecipitin analysis system.(Package insert: Tina-Quant Albumin reagents kit. Roche Diagnostics; 09/2018)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Sunday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

7 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82043

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
ALB24 Albumin, 24 Hr, U 1755-8
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
VL41 Urine Volume 3167-4
TM43 Collection Duration 13362-9
RATE2 Albumin Excretion Rate 58448-2
AL24H Albumin, 24 Hr, U 1755-8

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports