Test Catalog

Test Id : SULFU

Sulfate, 24 Hour, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Assessing the nutrition intake of animal protein


The calculation of urinary supersaturation of various crystals or stones

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

High-Pressure Ion Chromatography (HPIC)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Sulfate, 24 Hr, U

Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching


Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing


Necessary Information

24-Hour volume is required.


Question ID Description Answers
TM89 Collection Duration
VL71 Urine Volume

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies: Sarstedt 5 mL Aliquot Tube (T914)

Container/Tube: Plastic, 5-mL urine tube

Specimen Volume: 4 mL

Collection Instructions:

Collect urine for 24 hours.

2. No preservative.

3. Specimen must be kept refrigerated during and after collection.

4. Specimen pH should be between 4.5 and 8 and will stay in this range if kept refrigerated. Specimens with pH >8 indicate bacterial contamination, and testing will be cancelled. Do not attempt to adjust pH as it will adversely affect results.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens for multiple collections.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test


If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Renal Diagnostics Test Request (T830) with the specimen.

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative or application of temperature controls must occur within 4 hours of completion of the collection.







50% Acetic Acid


Boric Acid


Diazolidinyl Urea


6M Hydrochloric Acid


6M Nitric Acid


Sodium Carbonate







Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
Frozen 14 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Assessing the nutrition intake of animal protein


The calculation of urinary supersaturation of various crystals or stones

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Urinary sulfate is a reflection of dietary protein intake, particularly meat, fish, and poultry, which are rich in sulfur-containing amino acids methionine and cysteine. Urinary sulfate can be used to assess dietary protein intake for nutritional purposes. A protein-rich diet has been associated with an increased risk for stone formation, possibly due, in part, to an increase in urinary calcium excretion caused by acid production from metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids.(1,2) Indeed, urinary sulfate excretion is higher in patients who have kidney stones than in individuals who do not form stones. Thus, urinary sulfate excretion may provide an index for protein-induced calciuria.(1)


Sulfate is a major anion in the urine that has significant affinity for cations and modulates the availability of cations for reacting with other anions in the urine. It thus is an important factor of urinary supersaturation(3) for various crystals or stones such as calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite, and brushite. For example, a high sulfate concentration may modulate the availability of calcium for reacting with oxalate and thus affect the propensity for calcium oxalate stone or crystal formation. Urinary sulfate also has a major impact on buffering or providing hydrogen ions and as such modulates the supersaturation of uric acid.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

7-47 mmol/24 hours

Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Urinary sulfate is a reflection of dietary protein intake, particularly of meat, and thus can be used as an index of nutritional protein intake.


It also is used in the calculation of urinary supersaturation of various crystals or stones.

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

No significant cautionary statements

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Rodgers A, Gauvin D, Edeh S, et al: Sulfate but not thiosulfate reduces calculated and measured urinary ionized calcium and supersaturation: implications for the treatment of calcium renal stones. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(7):e103602 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0103602

2. Magee EA, Curno R, Edmond LM, Cummings JH: Contribution of dietary protein and inorganic sulfur to urinary sulfate: toward a biomarker of inorganic sulfur intake. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80(1):137-142

3. Houterman S, van Faassen A, Ocke MC, et al: Is urinary sulfate a biomarker for the intake of animal protein and meat? Cancer Lett 1997;114:295-296

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

A high-pressure ion chromatography system (HPICS) utilizes an anion exchange column to separate sulfate from other anions present in urine. Detection of sulfate is done by conductivity change as eluent flows through a conductivity cell of a conductivity detector. The Thermo IC system is operated through a PC computer using thermo Chromeleon 7 software.(Christison T, Lopez L: Determination of Inorganic Anions in Acid Rain Using a Dedicated High-Pressure Capillary Ion Chromatography System. Technical Note 124 Thermo Scientific, 2016)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information


Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

7 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.


LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
SULFU Sulfate, 24 Hr, U 26889-6
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
SLF_U Sulfate, 24 Hr, U 26889-6
TM89 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL71 Urine Volume 3167-4
SUL_C Sulfate Concentration, 24 Hr, U 12920-5

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports