Test Catalog

Test Id : MA2ES

Ma2 Antibody by ELISA, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating patients with suspected paraneoplastic encephalitides using serum specimens

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test


Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching



Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing


Necessary Information

Provide the following information:

1.Relevant clinical information

2.Ordering provider name, phone number, mailing address, and e-mail address

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies: Sarstedt Aliquot Tube, 5 mL (T914)

Collection Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 2 mL

Collection Instructions: Centrifuge and aliquot serum into a plastic vial.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject
Gross icterus Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
Frozen 28 days
Ambient 72 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Evaluating patients with suspected paraneoplastic encephalitides using serum specimens

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Ma2 antibodies are IgG biomarkers found in patients with paraneoplastic encephalitis (limbic encephalitis or brainstem encephalitis) or cerebellar ataxia. Antibodies (Ab) to Ma antigens can be found directed at Ma2 alone, or both Ma1 and Ma2, but never Ma1 alone. The accompanying neurological disorders (encephalitis, dementia, brainstem encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia) are usually severe. The cancer associations are either testicular germinoma (Ma2 Ab positive only) or diverse (Ma1 and Ma2 Ab positive). Neurological improvement upon treatment of cancer or immunotherapy is more commonly encountered in those seropositive for Ma2 only than when compared to Ma1 and Ma2 together.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.


Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Seropositivity for Ma2 antibody is consistent with a diagnosis of an autoimmune central nervous system disorder (encephalopathy, dementia, seizure disorder, brainstem encephalitis or cerebellar ataxia). A paraneoplastic basis should be considered and include seminoma (testicular or extra-testicular).

Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A negative Ma2 antibody test result does not exclude autoimmune neurological disease or cancer.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Voltz R, Gultekin SH, Rosenfeld MR, et al: A serologic marker of paraneoplastic limbic and brain-stem encephalitis in patients with testicular cancer. N Engl J Med. 1999 Jun 10;340(23):1788-1795. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199906103402303

2. Rosenfeld MR, Eichen JG, Wade DF, Posner JB, Dalmau J: Molecular and clinical diversity in paraneoplastic immunity to Ma proteins. Ann Neurol. 2001 Sep;50(3):339-348

3. Dalmau J, Graus F, Villarejo A, et al: Clinical analysis of anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis. Brain. 2004 Aug;127(Pt 8):1831-1844. doi: 10.1093/brain/awh203

4. Schuller M, Jenne D, Voltz R. The human PNMA family: novel neuronal proteins implicated in paraneoplastic neurological disease. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 Dec;169(1-2):172-176. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2005.08.019

5. Hoffmann LA, Jarius S, Pellkofer HL, et al: Anti-Ma and anti-Ta associated paraneoplastic neurological syndromes: 22 newly diagnosed patients and review of previous cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2008 Jul;79(7):767-773. doi: 10.1136/jnnp.2007.118588

6. Kunchok A, McKeon A: Opsoclonus in anti-Ma2 brain-stem encephalitis. N Engl J Med. 2020 Sep 24;383(13):e84. doi: 10.1056/NEJMicm1914516

7. Adams C, McKeon A, Silber MH, Kumar R: Narcolepsy, REM sleep behavior disorder, and supranuclear gaze palsy associated with Ma1 and Ma2 antibodies and tonsillar carcinoma. Arch Neurol. 2011 Apr;68(4):521-4. doi: 10.1001/archneurol.2011.56. Erratum in: Arch Neurol. 2011 Sep;68(9):1211

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Ma2 antibodies are directed against their corresponding intracellular protein (PNMA2). The Ma2 autoantibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is based on the principle of indirect ELISA that employs the ability of Ma2 autoantibodies to bind to antigenic protein (PNMA2) coated on the well surface of an ELISA plate. Detection of this bound antibody is accomplished using an anti-human secondary antibody that specifically recognizes the Fc region of the bound autoantibody. The secondary antibody is conjugated with alkaline phosphatase that enzymatically hydrolyzes a substrate molecule to produce an end product with a yellow color measurable at a wavelength of 405 nm. Controls and diluted samples are added in duplicate to coated plate wells and incubated for 2 hours, then washed extensively before adding the conjugated secondary antibody for an additional hour. After aspiration and washing, p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate is added to each well and incubated for an additional hour before absorbance is measured at 405 nm.(Instruction manual: Capture ELISA Protocols. Abnova; R 1.1, 02/2011)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information


Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Tuesday, Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

28 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test


Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.


LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
MA2ES Ma2 Ab ELISA, S In Process
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
605970 Ma2 Ab ELISA, S In Process

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports

Test Update Resources

Change Type Effective Date
New Test 2023-04-20
New Test 2023-04-20