Test Catalog

Test Id : CRTS1

Creatinine with Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR), Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosing and monitoring treatment of acute and chronic renal diseases

Adjusting dosage of renally excreted medications

Monitoring renal transplant recipients

Estimating glomerular filtration rate for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those with risk factors for CKD (diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and family history of kidney disease)

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Enzymatic Colorimetric Assay

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Creatinine with eGFR, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Creatinine

estimated glomerular filtration rate

eGFR

CKD-EPI

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Necessary Information

Patient's age and sex are required.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Serum gel tubes should be centrifuged within 2 hours of collection.

2. Red-top tubes should be centrifuged and aliquoted within 2 hours of collection.

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Renal Diagnostics Test Request (T830) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.25 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days
Frozen 90 days
Ambient 24 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosing and monitoring treatment of acute and chronic renal diseases

Adjusting dosage of renally excreted medications

Monitoring renal transplant recipients

Estimating glomerular filtration rate for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and those with risk factors for CKD (diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and family history of kidney disease)

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

In muscle metabolism, creatinine is synthesized endogenously from creatine and creatine phosphate. Creatinine is removed from plasma by glomerular filtration into the urine without being reabsorbed by the tubules to any significant extent. Renal tubular secretion also contributes a small quantity of creatinine to the urine. As a result, creatinine clearance often overestimates the true glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by 10% to more than 20%.

 

Determinations of creatinine and renal clearance of creatinine are of value in the assessment of kidney function. Serum or blood creatinine levels in renal disease generally do not increase until renal function is substantially impaired.

 

Estimated GFR (eGFR) is calculated using the 2009 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation:

eGFR (CKD-EPI) = 141 x min(Scr/k, 1)alpha x max(Scr/k,1)-1.209 x 0.993age x 1.018 (if patient is female) x 1.159 (if patient is black/African American)

-where age is in years

-k is 0.7 for females and 0.9 for males

-alpha is -0.329 for females and -0.411 for males

-min indicates the minimum of Scr/k or 1

-max indicates the maximum of Scr/k or 1.

 

Use of an estimating or prediction equation to estimate GFR from serum creatinine should be employed for people with CKD and those with risk factors for CKD (diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and family history of kidney disease). Reasons given for routine reporting of eGFR with every serum creatinine in adult (18 and over) patients include:

-GFR and creatinine clearance are poorly inferred from serum creatinine alone. GFR and creatinine clearance are inversely and nonlinearly related to serum creatinine. The effects of age, sex, and, to a lesser extent, race, on creatinine production further cloud interpretation.

-Creatinine is commonly measured in routine clinical practice. Albuminuria (>30 mg/24 hour or urine albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g) may be a more sensitive marker of early renal disease, especially among patients with diabetic nephropathy. However, there is poor adherence to guidelines that suggest annual urinary albumin testing of patients with known diabetes. Therefore, if a depressed eGFR is calculated from a serum creatinine measurement, it may help providers recognize early CKD and pursue appropriate follow-up testing and therapeutic intervention.

-Monitoring of kidney function (by GFR or creatinine clearance) is essential once albuminuria is discovered. Estimated GFR is a more practical means to closely follow changes in GFR over time, when compared to direct measurement using methods such as iothalamate clearance.

-The CKD-EPI equation does not require weight or height variables. From a serum creatinine measurement, it generates a GFR result normalized to a standard body surface area (1.73 m[2]) using sex, age, and race. Unlike the Cockcroft-Gault equation, height and weight, which are often not available in the laboratory information system, are not required. The CKD-EPI equation does require race (African American or non-African American), which also may not be readily available. For this reason, eGFR values for both African Americans and non-African Americans are reported. The difference between the 2 estimates is typically about 20%. The patient or provider can decide which result is appropriate for a given patient.

 

The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD work group clinical practice guideline,(2) as further defined by the National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) commentary,(3) provide the following recommendations for reporting and interpretation of serum creatinine and eGFR:

1.4.3: Evaluation of GFR

-1.4.3.1: We recommend using serum creatinine and a GFR estimating equation for initial assessment. (1A)

 

1.4.3.2: We suggest using additional tests (such as cystatin C or a clearance measurement) for confirmatory testing in specific circumstances when eGFR based on serum creatinine is less accurate. (2B)

 

1.4.3.3: We recommend that clinicians (1B):

-Use a GFR estimating equation to derive GFR from serum creatinine (eGFRcreat) rather than relying on the serum creatinine concentration alone.

-Understand clinical settings in which eGFRcreat is less accurate.

 

1.4.3.4: We recommend that clinical laboratories should (1B):

-Measure serum creatinine using a specific assay with calibration traceable to the international standard reference materials and minimal bias compared to isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) reference methodology.

-Report eGFRcreat in addition to the serum creatinine concentration in adults and specify the equation used whenever reporting eGFRcreat.

-Report eGFRcreat in adults using the 2009 CKD-EPI creatinine equation. An alternative creatinine-based

 

GFR estimating equation is acceptable if it has been shown to improve accuracy of GFR estimates compared to the 2009 CKD-EPI creatinine equation.

 

When reporting serum creatinine:

-We recommend that serum creatinine concentration be reported and rounded to the nearest whole number when expressed as standard international units (mmol/l) and rounded to the nearest 100th of a whole number when expressed as conventional units (mg/dl).

 

When reporting eGFRcreat:

-We recommend that eGFRcreat should be reported and rounded to the nearest whole number and relative to a body surface area of 1.73 m2 in adults using the units ml/min/1.73 m2.

- We recommend eGFRcreat levels less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 should be reported as "decreased".

 

1.4.3.8: We suggest measuring GFR using an exogenous filtration marker under circumstances where more accurate ascertainment of GFR will impact treatment decisions (2B)

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

CREATININE

Males(1)

0-11 months: 0.17-0.42 mg/dL

1-5 years: 0.19-0.49 mg/dL

6-10 years: 0.26-0.61 mg/dL

11-14 years: 0.35-0.86 mg/dL

> or =15 years: 0.74-1.35 mg/dL

 

Females(1)

0-11 months: 0.17-0.42 mg/dL

1-5 years: 0.19-0.49 mg/dL

6-10 years: 0.26-0.61 mg/dL

11-15 years: 0.35-0.86 mg/dL

> or =16 years: 0.59-1.04 mg/dL

 

ESTIMATED Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR)

> or =60 mL/min/BSA

 

Note: eGFR results will not be calculated for patients <18 years old.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Because serum creatinine is inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR), when renal function is near normal, absolute changes in serum creatinine reflect larger changes than do similar absolute changes when renal function is poor. For example, an increase in serum creatinine from 1 to 2 mg/dL may indicate a decrease in GFR of 50 mL/min (from 100 to 50 mL/min), whereas an increase in serum creatinine level from 4 to 5 mg/dL may indicate a decrease of only 5 mL/min (from 25 to 20 mL/min).

 

Because of the imprecision of serum creatinine as an assessment of GFR, there may be clinical situations where a more accurate GFR assessment must be performed, iothalamate or inulin clearance are superior to serum creatinine and eGFR.

 

Several factors may influence serum creatinine independent of changes in GFR. For instance, creatinine generation is dependent upon muscle mass. Thus, young, muscular males may have significantly higher serum creatinine levels than elderly females, despite having similar GFRs. Also, because some renal clearance of creatinine is due to tubular secretion, drugs that inhibit this secretory component (eg, cimetidine and trimethoprim) may cause small increases in serum creatinine without an actual decrease in GFR.

 

According to the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD work group , chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as the abnormalities of kidney structure or function, present for more than 3 months, with implications for health.(3) CKD should be classified by cause, GFR category, and albuminuria category.(3)

 

KDIGO guidelines provide the following GFR categories(2,3):

Stage

Terms

GFR mL/min/1.73 m(4)

G1*

Normal or high

90

G2*

Mildly decreased

60 to 89

G3a

Mildly to moderately decreased

45 to 59

G3b

Moderately to severely decreased

30-44

G4

Severely decreased

15-29

G5

Kidney failure

<15

*In the absence of evidence of kidney damage, neither G1 nor G2 fulfill criteria for CKD.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Creatinine:

-Ascorbic acid: less than 1.70 mmol/L or less than 300 mg/dL does not interfere.

-No interference was found at therapeutic concentrations using common drug panels. Exceptions: rifampicin, levodopa and calcium dobesilate (Dexium) cause artificially low creatinine results. Dicynone (Etamsylate) at therapeutic concentrations may lead to falsely low results.

-N-Ethylglycine at therapeutic concentrations and DL-proline at concentrations greater than or equal to 1 mmol/L give falsely high results.

-No significant interference up to creatine level of 4 mmol/L (524 mg/L).

-Hemolyzed specimens from patients with hemoglobin F (Hb F) values of 600 mg/dL and higher interfere with the test.

-2-Phenyl-1,3-indandion (phenindion) at therapeutic concentrations interferes with the assay.

-In patients receiving catecholamines (dopamine, dobutamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine) falsely low results might be observed.(4)

-Acetaminophen intoxications are frequently treated with N-acetylcysteine. N-Acetylcysteine at the therapeutic concentration of 3.4 mmol/L and the acetaminophen metabolite N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine (NAPQI) independently may cause falsely low creatinine results.

-Venipuncture should be performed prior to the administration of metamizole. Venipuncture immediately after or during the administration of metamizole may lead to falsely low results. A significant interference may occur at any plasma metamizole concentration.

-In very rare cases of gammopathy, in particular Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia (type IgM) may cause unreliable results.

The following do not interfere with this assay:

-Ketone bodies

-Cephalosporin antibiotics

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Kulasingam V, Jung BP, Blaustig IM, et al: Pediatric reference intervals for 28 chemistries and immunoassays on the Roche cobas 6000 analyzer--a CALIPER pilot study. Clin Biochem. 2010;43:1045-1050

2. Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD Work Group. KDIGO 2012 clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int Suppl. 2013;3:1-150

3. KDOQI US Commentary on the 2012 KDIGO Clinical Practice Guideline for the Evaluation and Management of CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2014;63:713-735

4. Saenger AK, Lockwood C, Snozek CL, et al: Catecholamine interference in enzymatic creatinine assays. Clin Chem. 2009;55(9):1732-1736

5. Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds: Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 8th ed. Elsevier, 2018

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Creatinine:

The enzymatic method is based on the determination of sarcosine from creatinine with the aid of creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated hydrogen peroxide is measured via a modified Trinder reaction using a colorimetric indicator. Optimization of the buffer system and the colorimetric indicator enables the creatinine concentration to be quantified both precisely and specifically.(Package insert: Roche cobas creatinine reagent. Roche Diagnostics; 12/2016)

 

Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate:

2009 Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation:

Black/African American calculation (> or =18 years only):

Females:

If creatinine < or =0.7 mg/dL: 166 x (creatinine/0.7)(-0.329) x 0.993 age

If creatinine >0.7 mg/dL: 166 x (creatinine/0.7)(-1.209) x 0.993 age

Males:

If creatinine < or =0.9 mg/dL: 163 x (creatinine/0.9)(-0.411) x 0.993 age

If creatinine >0.9 mg/dL: 163 x (creatinine/0.9)(-1.209) x 0.993 age

 

Non-black/non-African American calculation (> or =18 years only):

Females:

If creatinine < or =0.7 mg/dL: 144 x (creatinine/0.7)(-0.329) x 0.993 age

If creatinine < or =0.7 mg/dL: 144 x (creatinine/0.7)(-1.209) x 0.993 age

Males:

If creatinine < or =0.9 mg/dL: 141 x (creatinine/0.9)(-0.411) x 0.993 age

If creatinine < or =0.9 mg/dL: 141 x (creatinine/0.9)(-1.209) x 0.993 age

 

Values are reported for calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimates between 15-90 mL/min/1.73 m(4). Estimated GFR values outside of this range are reported as "<15 mL/min/1.73 m(2)" or ">90 mL/min/1.73 m(4)" and not as an exact number.

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Sunday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

Same day/1 to 2 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

1 week

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82565

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CRTS1 Creatinine with eGFR, S 45066-8
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
CRTSA Creatinine, S 2160-0
EGNB eGFR Non-Black/African American 88294-4
EGBL eGFR-Black/African American 88293-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports