Test Catalog

Test Id : VLCZ

Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency, Full Gene Analysis, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Confirmation of a diagnosis of very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency

 

Carrier screening in cases where there is a family history of VLCAD deficiency, but an affected individual is not available for testing or disease-causing mutations have not been identified

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)/DNA Sequencing Analysis

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

VLCAD Deficiency Full Gene Analysis

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

ACADVL (Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency)

Very Long Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Dehydrogenase Deficiency

VLCMS

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of draw.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Preferred:

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

 

Specimen Type: Blood spot

Supplies: Card - Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper)

Acceptable: Ahlstrom 226 filter paper, or Blood Spot Collection Card (T493)

Specimen Volume: 2 to 5 Blood Spots on collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper; Ahlstrom 226 filter paper; or Blood Spot Collection Card)

Collection Instructions:

1. An alternative blood collection option for a patient >1 year of age is finger stick.

2. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for 3 hours.

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions in Special Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777) in Special Instructions.

3. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800) in Special Instructions.

 

Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblasts

Container/Tube: T-75 or T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 1 Full T-75 or 2 full T-25 flasks

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated <24 hours

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Biochemical Disorders Patient Information (T527) in Special Instructions

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 1 mL

Blood Spots: 5 punches, 3-mm diameter

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated by Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies (preferred)

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Confirmation of a diagnosis of very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency

 

Carrier screening in cases where there is a family history of VLCAD deficiency, but an affected individual is not available for testing or disease-causing mutations have not been identified

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation. Mitochondrial beta-oxidation plays a major role in energy production and VLCAD catalyzes the first step in the breakdown of fatty acids that are 14 to 20 carbons long.

 

VLCAD deficiency has a reported incidence of approximately 1 in 30,000 births and has a variable age of onset that is generally classified into 3 categories. Individuals with the early-onset type present with cardiomyopathy, hypotonia, and hepatomegaly in the first months of life; sudden death is also frequent. Individuals with the early-childhood onset type typically present with hypoketotic hypoglycemia and hepatomegaly without cardiomyopathy. Individuals with the late-onset type of VLCAD deficiency generally present after childhood with intermittent rhabdomyolysis and muscle dysfunction that often manifests as muscle cramps and exercise intolerance.

 

Review of clinical features and biochemical analysis via plasma acylcarnitines, plasma fatty acid profile, urine organic acids, and fibroblast fatty acid oxidation probe studies are recommended as laboratory evaluations for VLCAD deficiency. Plasma and urine biochemical testing are not reliable for identifying all individuals with VLCAD deficiency or confirming carrier status, as biochemical findings may normalize during periods of good metabolic control. It is uncertain whether skin fibroblast analysis can identify carriers of VLCAD deficiency. The diagnosis is confirmed by molecular testing.

 

Mutations in the ACADVL gene are responsible for VLCAD deficiency. Most mutations are family specific with the exception of the V283A mutation (also reported in the literature as V243A). This mutation is estimated to account for 20% of pathogenic alleles in patients identified by newborn screening. When this test is ordered, results of biochemical assays should be included with the specimen as they are necessary for accurate interpretation of the VLCAD sequence analysis.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A small percentage of individuals who are carriers or have a diagnosis of very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency may have a mutation that is not identified by this method (eg, large genomic deletions, promoter mutations). The absence of a mutation, therefore, does not eliminate the possibility of positive carrier status or the diagnosis of VLCAD deficiency. For carrier testing, it is important to first document the presence of an ACADVL gene mutation in an affected family member.

In some cases, DNA alterations of undetermined significance may be identified.

 

Rare polymorphisms exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in our interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Andresen BS, Olpin S, Poorthuis BJ, et al: Clear correlation of genotype with disease phenotype in very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. Am J Hum Genet 1999;64:479-494

3. Liebig M, Schymik I, Mueller M, et al: Neonatal screening for very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency: enzymatic and molecular evaluation of neonates with elevated C14:1-carnitine levels. Pediatrics 2006;118:1065-1069

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Bidirectional sequence analysis is performed to test for the presence of a mutation in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the ACADVL gene.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Varies

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

14 to 20 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole blood-2 weeks (if available) Extracted DNA-3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81406-ACADV (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, very long chain) (eg, very long chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency), full gene sequence

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
VLCZ VLCAD Deficiency Full Gene Analysis 73735-3
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
54041 Result Summary 50397-9
54042 Result 82939-0
54043 Interpretation 69047-9
54044 Additional Information 48767-8
54046 Source 31208-2
54047 Released By 18771-6
54045 Specimen 31208-2

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports