Test Catalog

Test Id : GAAZ

Pompe Disease, Full Gene Analysis, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Confirmation of diagnosis of Pompe disease (as a follow-up to biochemical analyses)

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture testing will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

 

See the following in Special Instructions.

-Newborn Screen Follow-up for Pompe Disease 

-Newborn Screening Act Sheet Pompe Disease: Decreased Acid Alpha-Glucosidase

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) followed by DNA Sequencing

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Pompe Disease Full Gene Analysis

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Acid Maltase Deficiency

Alpha Glucosidase

GAA Gene

Glycogen Storage Disease Type II (GSD II)

GSD II (Glycogen Storage Disease Type II)

Pompe Disease

GAAMS

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture testing will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

 

See the following in Special Instructions.

-Newborn Screen Follow-up for Pompe Disease 

-Newborn Screening Act Sheet Pompe Disease: Decreased Acid Alpha-Glucosidase

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Ordering Guidance

For first tier testing for individuals older than 6 weeks with a suspected diagnosis of Pompe disease, order PDBS / Pompe Disease, Blood Spot. If the patient is 6 weeks old or younger, order PD2T / Pompe Disease Second-Tier Newborn Screening, Blood Spot.

 

Alternatively, enzyme studies can be performed on whole blood; order GAAW / Acid Alpha-Glucosidase, Leukocytes.

 

For measurement of ongoing therapeutic monitoring, order HEX4 / Glucotetrasaccharides, Random, Urine.

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1740 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Preferred:

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

 

Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblasts

Container/Tube: T-75 or T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 1 Full T-75 or 2 full T-25 flasks

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated 24 hours

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Supplies: Fibroblast Biopsy Transport Media (T115])

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin.

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Specimen Type: Blood spot

Supplies: Card - Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper)

Acceptable: PerkinElmer 226 (formerly Ahlstrom 226) filter paper or blood spot collection card

Specimen Volume: 2 to 5 Blood spots on collection card

Collection Instructions:

1. An alternative blood collection option for a patient older than 1 year of age is fingerstick. See Dried Blood Spot Collection Tutorial for how to collect blood spots via fingerstick.

2. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for a minimum of 3 hours.3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Additional Information:

1. Due to lower concentration of DNA yielded from blood spot, it is possible that additional specimen may be required to complete testing.

2. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions

3. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777)

4. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800)

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521) in Special Instructions

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 1 mL

Blood Spots: 5 punches-3 mm diameter

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Confirmation of diagnosis of Pompe disease (as a follow-up to biochemical analyses)

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture testing will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

 

See the following in Special Instructions.

-Newborn Screen Follow-up for Pompe Disease 

-Newborn Screening Act Sheet Pompe Disease: Decreased Acid Alpha-Glucosidase

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Pompe disease, also known as glycogen storage disease type II, is an autosomal recessive condition caused by deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase. Enzyme insufficiency results in symptoms such as muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory problems. Pathogenic alterations in the GAA gene (which encodes acid alpha-glucosidase) are associated with Pompe disease.

 

The diagnosis of this heterogeneous condition relies on both clinical and laboratory evaluation. Clinically, the condition is categorized into infantile and late-onset forms based on age of onset, organ involvement, and rate of progression. The infantile form (or classic Pompe disease) is the most severe form and is characterized by early onset and rapid progression of cardiac, liver, and muscle problems resulting in death within the first year. The infantile variant form has a similar age of onset but a milder clinical presentation. On the less severe end of the spectrum is the late-onset form with childhood, juvenile, or adult onset. The rate of progression and severity of symptoms is quite variable, particularly in the late-onset forms. The incidence varies by clinical type and ethnic population; the combined incidence is approximately 1 in 40,000 individuals.

 

The calculated ratio of creatine (Cre) and creatinine (Crn) to acid-alpha glucosidase (GAA) activity is useful for individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Pompe disease; for patients older than 6 weeks, order PDBS / Pompe Disease, Blood Spot; for patients 6 weeks and younger, order PD2T / Pompe Disease Second-Tier Newborn Screening, Blood Spot. Alternatively, enzyme studies can be ordered on blood via GAAW / Acid Alpha-Glucosidase, Leukocytes. When clinical manifestations and results of that analysis are supportive of a diagnosis of Pompe disease, variant analysis of the GAA gene is warranted. Additionally, measurement of the urine glucotetrasaccharide biomarker can aid in diagnosis and ongoing therapeutic monitoring (HEX4 / Glucotetrasaccharides, Random, Urine)

 

Over 250 different variants have been identified in this gene including point alterations and large deletions. GAA full gene sequencing provided by this test will detect 2 variants in approximately 83% to 93% of individuals with confirmed GAA enzyme deficiency. Identification of genetic variants provides confirmation of the diagnosis and allows for subsequent testing of at risk family members.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A small percentage of individuals who are carriers or have a diagnosis of Pompe disease may have a genetic variant that is not identified by this method (eg, large genomic deletions or duplications, promoter alterations). The absence of a variant, therefore, does not eliminate the possibility of positive carrier status or the diagnosis of Pompe disease. For carrier testing, it is important to first document the presence of a GAA gene variant in an affected family member.

 

In some cases, DNA alterations of undetermined significance may be identified.

 

Rare alterations exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in the interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med. 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Kishnani PS, Steiner RD, Bali D, et al: Pompe disease diagnosis and management guideline. Genet Med. 2006 May;8(5):267-288

3. Van der Ploeg AT, Reuser AJJ: Pompe's disease. Lancet. 2008;372(9646):1342-1353

4. Kroos M, Pomponio RJ, van Vliet L, et al: Update of the Pompe disease mutation database with 107 sequence variants and a format for severity rating. Hum Mut. 2008;29(6):E13-26

5. Reuser AJJ, Hirschhorn R, Kroos MA: Pompe disease: Glycogen storage disease type II, acid a-glucosidase (acid maltase) deficiency. In: Valle DL, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA. eds. Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed June 30, 2020. Available at: https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225890450

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Bidirectional sequence analysis is performed to test for the presence of a sequence variant in all coding regions and intron/exon boundaries of the GAA gene.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Varies

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

14 to 20 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available); Extracted DNA: 3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81406-GAA (glucosidase, alpha; acid) (eg, glycogen storage disease type II [Pompe disease]), full gene sequence

88233-Tissue culture, skin or solid tissue biopsy (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GAAZ Pompe Disease Full Gene Analysis 76034-8
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
53915 Result Summary 50397-9
53916 Result 82939-0
53917 Interpretation 69047-9
53918 Additional Information 48767-8
53919 Specimen 31208-2
53920 Source 31208-2
53921 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports