Test Catalog

Test Id : PHI11

Prostate Health Index Reflex, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostate conditions in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in the 4 to 10 ng/mL range and digital rectal examination (DRE) findings that are not suspicious for cancer

 

Calculation of prostate health index (phi) as a part of a reflex test when PSA concentrations are between 4 and 10 ng/mL

Highlights

Prostate health index (phi) may be used to determine the probability of prostate cancer on biopsy in men with total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 4.0 to 10.0 ng/mL range.

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
PHI13 Prostate Health Index (phi) Reflex No No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This test begins with the analysis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If the PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then the reflex test will be performed at an additional charge.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then free PSA and [-2]pro-PSA isoform results will be reported.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then the percent free PSA result and prostate health index (phi) will be calculated and reported.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 4.0 ng/mL, then the percent free PSA result and prostate health index (phi) will not be calculated or reported.

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Immunoenzymatic Assay

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Prostate Health Index Reflex, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

P2PSA

PHI

Prostate Health Index

Pro-2-PSA

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This test begins with the analysis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If the PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then the reflex test will be performed at an additional charge.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then free PSA and [-2]pro-PSA isoform results will be reported.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then the percent free PSA result and prostate health index (phi) will be calculated and reported.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 4.0 ng/mL, then the percent free PSA result and prostate health index (phi) will not be calculated or reported.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum Red

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation:

1. Specimens for testing should be collected prior to prostate manipulations such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostatic massage, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and prostatic biopsy.

2. A 6-week waiting period between needle biopsy and specimen collection is recommended.

3. Specimens should not be collected from patients receiving therapy with high biotin (vitamin B7) doses (ie, >5 mg/day) until at least 8 hours following the last biotin administration.

Collection Container/Tube: Red top (serum gel/SST are not acceptable)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic vial

Specimen Volume: 1 mL

Collection Instructions: Centrifuge, aliquot serum into plastic vial, and refrigerate serum within 3 hours of collection.

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send an Oncology Test Request (T729) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.75 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross icterus Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Red Frozen (preferred) 150 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in distinguishing prostate cancer from benign prostate conditions in men with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentrations in the 4 to 10 ng/mL range and digital rectal examination (DRE) findings that are not suspicious for cancer

 

Calculation of prostate health index (phi) as a part of a reflex test when PSA concentrations are between 4 and 10 ng/mL

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This test begins with the analysis of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). If the PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then the reflex test will be performed at an additional charge.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then free PSA and [-2]pro-PSA isoform results will be reported.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 4.0 and 10.0 ng/mL, then the percent free PSA result and prostate health index (phi) will be calculated and reported.

 

If the initial PSA concentration is between 2.0 and 4.0 ng/mL, then the percent free PSA result and prostate health index (phi) will not be calculated or reported.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein produced by the prostate gland, the lining of the urethra, and the bulbourethral gland. Normally, very little PSA is secreted in the blood. In conditions of increased glandular size and tissue damage, PSA is released into circulation. Measurement of serum PSA is useful for determining the extent of prostate cancer and assessing the response to prostate cancer treatment. PSA is also used as a screening tool for prostate cancer detection, although its use in screening has become controversial in recent years. While an elevated serum PSA is associated with prostate cancer, a number of benign conditions, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostatitis might lead to elevated serum PSA concentrations. As a consequence PSA lacks specificity for prostate cancer detection.

 

Several PSA isoforms have been identified that can further increase the specificity of PSA for prostate cancer. In particular, the [-2] form of proPSA (p2PSA) shows improved performance over either total or free PSA for prostate cancer detection on biopsy. The prostate health index (phi) is a formula that combines all 3 PSA forms (total PSA, free PSA, and p2PSA) into a single score. phi is calculated using the following formula: (p2PSA/free PSA) x square root of PSA.

 

In a multicenter study that compared the performance of PSA, free PSA, p2PSA, and phi in men undergoing prostate biopsy due to a serum PSA concentration between 4 and 10 ng/mL, phi was the best predictor of any prostate cancer, high-grade cancer, and clinically significant cancer. At 95% clinical sensitivity, the clinical specificity of phi was 16.0%, compared to 8.4% for free PSA and 6.5% for PSA.

 

Prostatic biopsy is required for diagnosis of cancer.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Females: Not applicable

 

PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA) Males:

Age

Reference range

<40 years

< or =2.0 ng/mL

40-49 years

< or =2.5 ng/mL

50-59 years

< or =3.5 ng/mL

60-69 years

< or =4.5 ng/mL

70-79 years

< or =6.5 ng/mL

> or =80 years

< or =7.2 ng/mL

 

PERCENT FREE PSA

Males:

When PSA is in the range of 4-10 ng/mL

% Free PSA

Probability of cancer

< or =<10%

56%

11-15%

28%

16-20%

20%

21-25%

16%

>25%

8%

 

PROSTATE HEALTH INDEX (phi)

Males:

When PSA is in the range of 4-10 ng/mL

phi range

Probability of cancer

95% Confidence interval

0-26.9

9.8%

5.2-15.4%

27.0-35.9

16.8%

11.3-22.2%

36.0-54.9

33.3%

26.8-39.9%

> or =55.0

50.1%

39.8-61.0%

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Prostate health index (phi) may be used to determine the probability of prostate cancer on biopsy in men with total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in the 4 to 10 ng/mL range. Low phi scores are associated with a lower probability of finding prostate cancer on biopsy and higher phi scores are associated with an increased probability of finding prostate cancer on biopsy. The choice of an appropriate phi score to be used in guiding clinical decision-making may vary for each patient and may depend on other clinical factors or on family history of disease. The table below indicates the probability of finding prostate cancer on biopsy when PSA is the in range of 4 to 10 ng/mL and may be used as guidance for interpreting the phi score.

 

phi range

Probability of cancer

95% Confidence interval

0-26.9

9.8%

5.2%-15.4%

27.0-35.9

16.8%

11.3%-22.2%

36.0-54.9

33.3%

26.8%-39.9%

55.0+

50.1%

39.8%-61.0%

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Specimens for [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen (p2PSA) testing should be collected prior to prostate manipulations such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostatic massage, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), and prostatic biopsy. DRE may cause a transient increase in p2PSA, free PSA, and PSA.

 

Transrectal needle biopsy has also been shown to cause transient increases in p2PSA, free PSA, and PSA elevations, thus a 6-week waiting period between needle biopsy and p2PSA, free PSA, and PSA sampling is recommended.

 

The prostate health index (phi) results should be interpreted in light of the total clinical presentation of the patient, including: symptoms, clinical history, data from additional tests, and other appropriate information. phi should not be interpreted as absolute evidence for the presence or absence of prostate cancer. Elevated PSA concentrations, increased phi, or decreased free PSA may be observed in patients with nonmalignant disorders, as well as those with prostate cancer.

 

Routine use of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor drugs typically lower PSA, free PSA, and p2PSA levels in patients. Other drugs used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may also affect PSA levels. Care should be taken in interpreting results from patients taking these drugs.

 

The use of the prostate health index (phi) has not been validated when PSA values are outside of the range of 4 to 10 ng/mL.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Catalona WJ, Partin AW, Sanda MG, et al: A multicenter study of [-2]pro-prostate-specific antigen combined with prostate-specific antigen and free prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer detection in the 2.0 to 10.0 ng/mL prostate-specific antigen range. J Urol. 2011 May;185:1650-1655

2. Pecoraro V, Roli L, Plebani M, Trenti T: Clinical utility of the (-2)proPSA and evaluation of the evidence: a systematic review. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2016 Jul 1;54(7):1123-1132. doi: 10.1515/cclm-2015-0876

3. Loeb S, Catalona WJ: The Prostate Health Index: a new test for the detection of prostate cancer. Ther Adv Urol. 2014 Apr;6(2):74-77 doi: 10.1177/1756287213513488

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA):

The Access Hybritech prostate-specific antigen (PSA)assay is a 2-site immunoenzymatic (sandwich) assay. A sample is added to mouse monoclonal anti-PSA alkaline phosphatase conjugate and paramagnetic particles coated with a second mouse monoclonal anti-PSA antibody. The PSA in the sample binds to the immobilized monoclonal anti-PSA on the solid phase while the monoclonal anti-PSA alkaline phosphatase conjugate reacts with a different antigenic site on the sample PSA. After incubation, materials bound to the solid phase are held in a magnetic field while unbound materials are washed away. The chemiluminescent substrate Lumi-Phos* 530 is added to the vessel and light generated by the reaction is measured with a luminometer. The light production is directly proportional to the concentration of PSA in the sample and is determined from a stored, multipoint calibration curve.(Instruction manual: Beckman Coulter Access Total PSA Instructions for Use. Beckman Coulter Inc; 2019)

 

Free Prostate Specific Antigen:

The Access Hybritech free PSA assay is a 2-site immunoenzymatic (sandwich) assay. A sample is added to mouse monoclonal anti-free PSA-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and paramagnetic particles coated with a second mouse monoclonal anti-PSA antibody. The free PSA in the sample binds to the immobilized monoclonal anti-PSA on the solid phase while the monoclonal anti-free PSA-alkaline phosphatase conjugate reacts with different antigenic sites on the free PSA molecule. After incubation, materials bound to the solid phase are held in a magnetic field while unbound materials are washed away. The chemiluminescent substrate Lumi-Phos 530 is added to the vessel and light generated by the reaction is measured with a luminometer. The light production is directly proportional to the concentration of free PSA in the sample and is determined from a stored, multipoint calibration curve.(Instruction manual: Beckman Coulter Access Free PSA Instructions for Use. Beckman Coulter Inc; 2019)

 

[-2]ProPSA:

The Access Hybritech p2PSA is a 2-site immunoenzymatic (sandwich) assay. A sample is added to mouse monoclonal anti-PSA-alkaline phosphatase conjugate, paramagnetic particles coated with a mouse monoclonal anti-[-2]proPSA antibody, and a blocking reagent. The [-2]proPSA in the sample binds to the immobilized monoclonal anti-[-2]proPSA on the solid phase while the monoclonal anti-PSA-alkaline phosphatase conjugate reacts with different antigenic sites on the [-2]proPSA molecule. After incubation, materials bound to the solid phase are held in a magnetic field while unbound materials are washed away. The chemiluminescent substrate Lumi-Phos*530 is added to the vessel and light generated by the reaction is measured with a luminometer. The light production is directly proportional to the concentration of [-2]proPSA in the sample and is determined from a stored, multipoint calibration curve.(Instruction manual: Beckman Coulter Access P2PSA Instructions for Use. Beckman Coulter Inc; 2019)

 

The free PSA concentration is divided by the total PSA to derive the percent free PSA. The percentage is provided only when the total PSA is in the range of 4.0 to 10.0 ng/mL.

 

Prostate health index (phi) is calculated in the laboratory information system, SCC Soft. phi is provided only when the total PSA is in the range of 4.0 to 10.0 ng/mL.

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 3 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

12 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84153

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PHI11 Prostate Health Index Reflex, S 53764-7
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
PHI12 Prostate Specific Antigen, S 83112-3

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports