Test Catalog

Test ID: BPGMM    
2,3-Bisphosphoglycerate Mutase, Full Gene Sequencing Analysis, Varies

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase deficiency in individuals with lifelong, unexplained erythrocytosis


Identifying genetic variant carriers in family members of an affected individual for the purposes of preconception genetic counseling


This test is not intended for prenatal diagnosis.

Genetics Test Information Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

The BPGM gene encodes the enzyme 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase (BPGM) that catalyzes the conversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG), also known as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), through the Luebering-Rapoport pathway. 2,3-BPG is a small molecule generated from glycolysis and is present in large amounts in red blood cells. It functions to stabilize the hemoglobin molecule and facilitates oxygen unloading at tissue sites. Therefore, 2,3-BPG concentrations affect the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin. Variations in this gene that result in a deficiency of 2,3-BPG can cause hereditary erythrocytosis.


This test can detect variants in BPGM that are associated with unexplained lifelong erythrocytosis due to bisphosphoglycerate mutase deficiency.

Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

This evaluation is recommended for patients presenting with lifelong elevation in hemoglobin or hematocrit, usually with a positive family history of similar symptoms. Reported cases of 2,3- bisphosphoglycerate (BPG) deficiency have been associated with decreased p50 values (left-shifted oxygen-dissociation curve). Due to the rarity of this disorder, other more common causes of erythrocytosis should be excluded prior to ordering; see Erythrocytosis Evaluation Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.


Polycythemia vera and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm should be excluded prior to testing as they are more common causes of elevated hemoglobin values. A JAK2 V617F or JAK2 exon 12 variant should not be present. Patient serum erythropoietin levels are typically normal or elevated and oxygen dissociation p50 values decreased in test candidates. For a reflexive evaluation including p50 testing, hemoglobin electrophoresis, and variant analysis of genes associated with hereditary erythrocytosis, order REVE1 / Erythrocytosis Evaluation, Whole Blood.

Special Instructions Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name A short description of the method used to perform the test

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)/Sanger Sequencing

NY State Available Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.


Reporting Name Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

BPGM Full Gene Sequencing

Aliases Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

DPGM, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase