Test Catalog

Test Id : SERPZ

SERPINA1 Gene, Full Gene Analysis, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identification of causative mutations when a deficient serum level of alpha-1-antitrypsin is not explained by routine testing, such as proteotyping, genotyping, or isoelectric focusing phenotyping.

 

Determining the specific allelic variant (full gene analysis) for prognosis and genetic counseling

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplification/DNA Sequencing

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

SERPINA1 Gene, Full Gene Analysis

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

A1ATM

A1AT

AATD

Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

Serpin Peptidase Inhibitor, Clade A, Member 1

AAT Deficiency

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521) in Special Instructions and Forms.

3. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Gastroenterology and Hepatology Client Test Request (T728) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated by Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Refrigerated (preferred)
Ambient
Frozen

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identification of causative mutations when a deficient serum level of alpha-1-antitrypsin is not explained by routine testing, such as proteotyping, genotyping, or isoelectric focusing phenotyping.

 

Determining the specific allelic variant (full gene analysis) for prognosis and genetic counseling

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1A) is a protein that inhibits the enzyme neutrophil elastase. It is predominantly synthesized in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream. The inhibition function is especially important in the lungs because it protects against excess tissue degradation. Tissue degradation due to A1A deficiency is associated with an increased risk for early onset panlobular emphysema, which initially affects the lung bases (as opposed to smoking-related emphysema, which presents with upper lung field emphysema). Patients may become symptomatic in their 30s and 40s. The most frequent symptoms reported in a National Institute of Health study of 1,129 patients with severe deficiency (mean age 46 years) included cough (42%), wheezing (65%), and dyspnea with exertion (84%). Many patients were misdiagnosed as having asthma. It is estimated that approximately one-sixth of all lung transplants are for A1A deficiency.

 

Liver disease can also occur, particularly in children; it occurs much less commonly than emphysema in adults.

 

A1A deficiency is a relatively common disorder in Northern European Caucasians. The diagnosis of A1A deficiency is initially made by quantitation of protein levels in serum followed by phenotyping-determination of specific allelic variants by isoelectric focusing (IEF), genotyping-DNA based detection of specific mutations, or proteotyping-using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). While there are many different alleles in this gene, only 3 are common. The 3 major alleles include: M (full functioning, normal allele), S (associated with reduced levels of protein), and Z (disease-causing mutation associated with liver disease and premature emphysema). The S and Z alleles account for the majority of the abnormal alleles detected in affected patients. As a codominant disorder, both alleles are expressed. An individual of SZ or S- null genotype may have a small increased risk for emphysema (but not liver disease) due to slightly reduced protein levels. On the other hand, an individual with the ZZ genotype is at greater risk for early onset liver disease and premature emphysema.

 

Smoking appears to hasten development of emphysema by 10 to 15 years. These individuals should be monitored closely for lung and liver function.

 

Historically, IEF phenotyping has been the primary method for characterizing variants, though in some cases the interpretation is difficult and prone to error. Serum quantitation is helpful in establishing a diagnosis but can be influenced by other factors. IEF phenotyping, LC-MS/MS proteotyping, and DNA-based genotyping are routinely used to test for deficiency alleles, but can miss disease alleles other than the S and Z alleles. In patients suspected to have alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency based on clinical findings or serum alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels, who do not have evidence of the SZ or ZZ genotype by routine methods, this gene analysis assay may provide useful information. Full sequencing of the SERPINA1 coding region is performed for the detection of rare non-S or non-Z disease mutations.

 

See Alpha-1-Antitrypsin-A Comprehensive Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

 

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A small percentage of individuals who are carriers or have a diagnosis of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency may have a mutation that is not identified by this method (eg, large genomic deletions, promoter mutations). The absence of a mutation, therefore, does not eliminate the possibility of positive carrier status or the diagnosis of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. For testing of at risk family members, it is important to first document the presence of a SERPINA1 gene mutation in an affected family member.

 

In some cases, DNA alterations of undetermined significance may be identified.

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in the interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.

 

Rare polymorphisms exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Stoller JK, Aboussouan LS: Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. Lancet 2005;365:2225-2236

3. McElvaney NG, Stoller JK, Buist AS, et al: Baseline characteristics of enrollees in the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Registry of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency Registry Study Group. Chest 1997;111:394-403

4. Snyder MR, Katzmann JA, Butz ML, et al: Diagnosis of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: an algorithm of quantification, genotyping, and phenotyping. Clin Chem 2006;52:2236-2242

5. Graham RP, Dina MA, Howe SC, et al: SERPINA1 full-gene sequencing identifies rare mutations not detected in targeted mutation analysis. J Mol Diag 2015;17:689-694

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Bidirectional sequence analysis is performed to test for the presence of a mutation in all coding regions and intron and exon boundaries of the SERPINA1 gene.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Varies

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

14 to 20 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available), Extracted DNA: 3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81479

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
SERPZ SERPINA1 Gene, Full Gene Analysis 94222-7
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
113178 Result Summary 50397-9
113179 Result 82939-0
113180 Interpretation 69047-9
113181 Additional Information 48767-8
113182 Specimen 31208-2
113183 Source 31208-2
113184 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports