Test Catalog

Test Id : IDUAW

Alpha-L-Iduronidase, Leukocytes

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis I, Hurler, Scheie, and Hurler-Scheie syndromes in leukocytes

 

This test is not useful for determining carrier status.

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test provides diagnostic testing for patients with clinical signs and symptoms suspicious for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I).

 

Enzyme testing is included in the diagnostic workup for infants following a positive newborn screen result for MPS I.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Flow Injection Analysis-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Alpha-L-Iduronidase, Leukocytes

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Alpha-Iduronidase

Alpha-L-Iduronidase

Hurler Disease

Hurler Syndrome

Hurler/Scheie Syndrome

IDUA Deficiency

Iduronidase, Alpha-L

MPS 1

MPS 1a

MPS 1b

MPS 1c

MPS IA

MPS IB

MPS IC

MPS IH

MPS IH/S

MPS IS

Mucopolysaccharidosis I

Scheie Disease

Scheie Syndrome

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Whole Blood ACD

Ordering Guidance

This test is preferred for diagnostic testing. For carrier detection, order MPS1Z / Hurler Syndrome, Full Gene Analysis, Varies.

Shipping Instructions

For optimal isolation of leukocytes, it is recommended the specimen arrive refrigerated within 6 days of collection to be stabilized. Collect specimen Monday through Thursday only and not the day before a holiday. Specimen should be collected and packaged as close to shipping time as possible.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Yellow top (ACD solution B)

Acceptable: Yellow top (ACD solution A) or lavender top (EDTA)

Specimen Volume: 6 mL

Collection Instructions: Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Biochemical Genetics Patient Information (T602)

3. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Biochemical Genetics Test Request (T798) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

2 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole Blood ACD Refrigerated (preferred) 6 days
Ambient 6 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis I, Hurler, Scheie, and Hurler-Scheie syndromes in leukocytes

 

This test is not useful for determining carrier status.

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test provides diagnostic testing for patients with clinical signs and symptoms suspicious for mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I).

 

Enzyme testing is included in the diagnostic workup for infants following a positive newborn screen result for MPS I.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by the deficiency of any of the enzymes involved in the stepwise degradation of dermatan sulfate, heparan sulfate, keratan sulfate, or chondroitin sulfate, also known as glycosaminoglycans (GAG) or mucopolysaccharides. Accumulation of GAG in lysosomes interferes with normal functioning of cells, tissues, and organs. There are 11 known disorders that involve the accumulation of GAG. MPS disorders involve multiple organ systems and are characterized by coarse facial features, cardiac abnormalities, organomegaly, intellectual disabilities, short stature, and skeletal abnormalities.

 

Mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by reduced or absent activity of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase due to variants in the IDUA gene. Deficiency of alpha-L-iduronidase can result in a wide range of phenotypes categorized into 3 syndromes: Hurler syndrome (MPS IH), Scheie syndrome (MPS IS), and Hurler-Scheie syndrome (MPS IH/S). Because these syndromes cannot be distinguished biochemically, they are also referred to as MPS I and attenuated MPS I.

 

Clinical features and severity of symptoms of MPS I are variable, ranging from severe disease to an attenuated form that generally presents at a later onset with a milder clinical presentation. In general, symptoms may include coarse facies, progressive dysostosis multiplex, hepatosplenomegaly, corneal clouding, hearing loss, intellectual disabilities or learning difficulties, and cardiac valvular disease. The incidence of MPS I is approximately 1 in 100,000 live births. Treatment options include hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy.

 

Individuals with MPS I typically demonstrate elevated levels of the GAG dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate (see MPSSC / Mucopolysaccharides Screen, Random, Urine; MPSWB / Mucopolysaccharides, Blood). Reduced or absent activity of alpha L-iduronidase can confirm a diagnosis of MPS I; however, enzymatic testing is not reliable for carrier detection. Molecular sequence analysis of the IDUA gene allows for detection of a disease-causing variant in affected individuals and subsequent carrier detection in relatives (see MPS1Z / Hurler Syndrome, Full Gene Analysis, Varies). To date, a clear genotype-phenotype correlation has not been established.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

> or =2.06 nmol/hour/mg protein

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Results below 2.06 nmol/hour/mg protein in properly submitted specimens are consistent with alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency (mucopolysaccharidosis I). Further differentiation between Hurler, Scheie, and Hurler-Scheie syndromes is dependent upon the clinical findings.

 

Normal results (> or =2.06 nmol/hour/mg protein) are not consistent with alpha-L-iduronidase deficiency.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

The presence of a pseudodeficiency allele may cause reduced activity of alpha-L-iduronidase in the artificial substrate used in this assay. This can result in values below the normal reference range but will typically be greater than levels found in individuals with mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I).

 

This test does not differentiate between Hurler and Scheie syndromes.

 

Enzyme levels may be normal in individuals receiving enzyme replacement therapy or who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Neufeld EF, Muenzer J: The mucopolysaccharidoses. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA. eds. The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill; 2019. Accessed March 23, 2022. Available at https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?sectionid=225544161

2. Clark LA, Atherton AM, Burton BK, et al: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I newborn screening: Best practices for diagnosis and management. J Pediatr. 2017 Mar;182:363-370

3. Martins AM, Dualibi AP, Norato D, et al: Guidelines for the management of mucopolysaccharidosis type I. J Pediatr. 2009 Oct:155(4 Suppl):S32-S46

4. Enns GM, Steiner RD, Cowan TM: Lysosomal disorders: mucopolysaccharidoses. In: Sarafoglou K, Hoffmann GF, Roth KS, eds. Pediatric Endocrinology and Inborn Errors of Metabolism. McGraw-Hill, Medical Publishing Division; 2009:721-730

5. Clarke LA: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I. In: Adam MP, Ardinger HH, Pagon RA, et al, eds. GeneReviews [Internet]. University of Washington, Seattle; 2002. Updated February 25, 2021. Accessed March 23, 2022. Available at www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1162/

6. Elliott S, Buroker N, Cournoyer JJ, et al: Pilot study of newborn screening for six lysosomal storage diseases using tandem mass spectrometry. Mol Genet Metab. 2016 Aug;118(4):304-309

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

The specimens are incubated with a mix of substrate and internal standard for acid sphingomyelinase, beta-glucocerebrosidase, acid alpha-glucosidase, alpha-galactosidase, galactocerebrosidase, and alpha-L-iduronidase. The sample is then purified by liquid-liquid extraction. The extract is evaporated and reconstituted before analysis by tandem mass spectrometry.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Preanalytical processing: Monday through Saturday.

Testing performed: Monday, Wednesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

5 to 9 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

WBC homogenate: 1 month

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

82657

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
IDUAW Alpha-L-Iduronidase, Leukocytes 24057-2
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
606276 Alpha-L-Iduronidase, Leukocytes 24057-2
606277 Interpretation 59462-2
606278 Reviewed By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Create a PDF

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports