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Test Catalog

Test ID: ALDU    
Aldosterone, 24 Hour, Urine

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Investigation of primary aldosteronism (eg, adrenal adenoma/carcinoma and adrenal cortical hyperplasia) and secondary aldosteronism (renovascular disease, salt depletion, potassium loading, cardiac failure with ascites, pregnancy, Bartter syndrome)

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Aldosterone stimulates sodium transport across cell membranes, particularly in the distal renal tubule where sodium is exchanged for hydrogen and potassium. Secondarily, aldosterone is important in the maintenance of blood pressure and blood volume.

 

Aldosterone is the major mineralocorticoid and is produced by the adrenal cortex. The renin-angiotensin system is the primary regulator of the synthesis and secretion of aldosterone. Likewise, increased concentrations of potassium in the plasma may directly stimulate adrenal production of the hormone. Under physiologic conditions, pituitary adrenocorticotropic hormone can stimulate aldosterone secretion.

 

Urinary aldosterone levels are inversely correlated with urinary sodium excretion. Normal individuals will show a suppression of urinary aldosterone with adequate sodium repletion.

 

Primary hyperaldosteronism, which may be caused by aldosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma/carcinomas or adrenal cortical hyperplasia, is characterized by hypertension accompanied by increased aldosterone levels, hypernatremia, and hypokalemia. Secondary hyperaldosteronism (eg, in response to renovascular disease, salt depletion, potassium loading, cardiac failure with ascites, pregnancy, Bartter's syndrome) is characterized by increased aldosterone levels and increased plasma rennin activity.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

0-30 days: 0.7-11.0 mcg/24 hours*

31 days-11 months: 0.7-22.0 mcg/24 hours*

> or =1 year: 2.0-20.0 mcg/24 hours

 

*Loeuille GA, Racadot A, Vasseur P, Vandewalle B: Blood and urinary aldosterone levels in normal neonates, infants and children. Pediatrie 1981;36:335-344

 

For SI unit Reference Values, see International System of Units (SI) Conversion

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Urinary aldosterone excretion greater than 12 mcg/24 hours as part of an aldosterone suppression test is consistent with hyperaldosteronism.

 

See Renin-Aldosterone Studies in Special Instructions.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

The plasma renin activity (PRA) cannot be interpreted if the patient is being treated with spironolactone (Aldactone). Spironolactone (Aldactone) should be discontinued for 4 to 6 weeks before testing.

 

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have the potential to "falsely elevate" PRA. Therefore, in a patient treated with an ACE-inhibitor, the findings of a detectable PRA level or a low sodium aldosterone (SA)/PRA ratio do not exclude the diagnosis of primary aldosteronism. In addition, a strong predictor for primary aldosteronism is a PRA level undetectably low in a patient taking an ACE-inhibitor.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Young WF Jr: Primary aldosteronism: A common and curable form of hypertension. Cardiol Rev. 1999;7:207-214

2. Young WF Jr: Pheochromocytoma and primary aldosteronism: diagnostic approaches. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1977;26:801-827

3. Fredline VF, Taylor PJ, Dodds HM, Johnson AG: A reference method for the analysis of aldosterone in blood by high-performance liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical Biochemistry. 1997 Oct 15;252(2):308-313: 9344418 

4. Carey RM, Padia SH: Primary Mmineralocorticoid Eexcess Ddisorders and Hhypertension. In: Jameson JL, De Groot LJ, de Kretser DM, Giudice LC, et al: eds. Endocrinology: Adult and Pediatric. 7th ed. WB Saunders; 2016: chap 108, pp 1871-1891. e6, ISBN 9780323189071

Special Instructions Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test