Test Catalog

Test ID: LACTO    
Lactotransferrin IHC, Technical Component Only

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identifying the presence of lactotransferrin in amyloid deposits


An adjunct to amyloid subtyping analysis by mass spectrometry

Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For the initial technical component only immunohistochemical (IHC) stain performed, the appropriate bill-only test ID will be reflexed and charged (IHTOI). For each additional technical component only IHC stain performed, an additional bill-only test ID will be reflexed and charged (IHTOA).

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Lactotransferrin (also referred to as lactoferrin) is a secreted iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk, tears, and leukocytes. It has been shown to be expressed in various tissues including tonsil, intestinal epithelium, kidney, and various regions of the brain where it is thought to play a role in iron metabolism and defense against bacteria. Lactotransferrin also plays a role in amyloidosis, specifically of the cornea, but has been observed in other tissue types.

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

This test includes only technical performance of the stain (no pathologist interpretation is performed). Mayo Clinic cannot provide an interpretation of tech only stains outside the context of a pathology consultation. If an interpretation is needed, refer to PATHC / Pathology Consultation for a full diagnostic evaluation or second opinion of the case. All material associated with the case is required. Additional specific stains may be requested as part of the pathology consultation, and will be performed as necessary at the discretion of the Mayo pathologist.


The positive and negative controls are verified as showing appropriate immunoreactivity and documentation is retained at Mayo Clinic Rochester. If a control tissue is not included on the slide, a scanned image of the relevant quality control tissue is available upon request. Contact 855-516-8404.


Interpretation of this test should be performed in the context of the patient's clinical history and other diagnostic tests by a qualified pathologist.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Age of a cut paraffin section can affect immunoreactivity. Stability thresholds vary widely among published literature and are antigen-dependent. Best practice is for paraffin sections to be cut within 6 weeks.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Ando Y, Nakamura M, Kai H, et al: A novel localized amyloidosis associated with lactoferrin in the cornea. Lab Invest 2002;82(6):757-765

2. Furuya S, Masurmori N, Furuya R, et al: Characterization of localized seminal vesicle amyloidosis causing hemospermia: An analysis using immunohistochemistry and magnetic resonance imaging. J Urol 2005;173:1273-1277

3. Kebbel A, Rocken C: Immunohistochemical classification of amyloid in surgical pathology revisited. Am J Surg Pathol 2006;30(6):673-683

4. Tuccari G, Barresi G: Lactoferrin in human tumours: immunohistochemical investigations during more than 25 years. Biometals 2011;24:775-784