Test Catalog

Test ID: WT1I    
Wilms Tumor (WT-1) Immunostain, Technical Component Only

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aids in the identification of Wilms tumor

Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Wilms tumor-1 (WT-1) protein is a transcription factor that acts as a tumor suppressor gene. WT-1 is involved in differentiation of certain tissues such as mesothelium and the urogenital system. It is also expressed in Wilms tumor, a kidney tumor found in children. In normal tissues, it is expressed in kidney, a subset of hematopoietic cells, Sertoli cells in the testis, granulosa cells in the ovary, and decidual cells of the uterus.

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

This test includes only technical performance of the stain (no pathologist interpretation is performed). Mayo Clinic cannot provide an interpretation of tech only stains outside the context of a pathology consultation. If an interpretation is needed, refer to PATHC / Pathology Consultation for a full diagnostic evaluation or second opinion of the case. All material associated with the case is required. Additional specific stains may be requested as part of the pathology consultation, and will be performed as necessary at the discretion of the Mayo pathologist.


The positive and negative controls are verified as showing appropriate immunoreactivity and documentation is retained at Mayo Clinic Rochester. If a control tissue is not included on the slide, a scanned image of the relevant quality control tissue is available upon request. Contact 855-516-8404.


Interpretation of this test should be performed in the context of the patient's clinical history and other diagnostic tests by a qualified pathologist.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Age of a cut paraffin section can affect immunoreactivity. Stability thresholds vary widely among published literature and are antigen-dependent. Best practice is for paraffin sections to be cut within 6 weeks.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Al-Hussaini M, Stockman A, Foster H, McCluggage WG: WT-1 assists in distinguishing ovarian from uterine serous carcinoma and in distinguishing between serous and endometrioid ovarian carcinoma. Histopathology 2004;44:109-115

2. Hwang H, Quenneville L, Haziji H, Gown AM: Wilms tumor gene product: sensitive and contextually specific marker of serous carcinomas of ovarian surface epithelial origin. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2004;12:122-126

3. Lae ME, Roche PC, Jin L, et al: Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of 32 tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 2002;26(7):823-835

4. Nakatsuka S-I, Oji Y, Horiuchi T, et al: Immunohistochemical detection of WT1 protein in a variety of cancer cells. Mod Pathol 2006;19:804-814