Test Catalog

Test ID: VIPI    
Vasoactive Intestine Polypeptide (VIP), Technical Component Only

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in the identification of islet cell tumors

Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Excessive vasoactive intestine polypeptide (VIP) production by islet cell tumors has been associated with Verner-Morrison syndrome, also known as pancreatic cholera, in which patients have massive, watery diarrhea. A subset of normal cells in the pancreatic islets express VIP (<1%). Peripheral nerves and ganglion cells also serve as a positive internal control.

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

This test includes only technical performance of the stain (no pathologist interpretation is performed). Mayo Clinic cannot provide an interpretation of tech only stains outside the context of a pathology consultation. If an interpretation is needed, refer to PATHC / Pathology Consultation for a full diagnostic evaluation or second opinion of the case. All material associated with the case is required. Additional specific stains may be requested as part of the pathology consultation, and will be performed as necessary at the discretion of the Mayo pathologist.


The positive and negative controls are verified as showing appropriate immunoreactivity and documentation is retained at Mayo Clinic Rochester. If a control tissue is not included on the slide, a scanned image of the relevant quality control tissue is available upon request. Contact 855-516-8404.


Interpretation of this test should be performed in the context of the patient's clinical history and other diagnostic tests by a qualified pathologist.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Age of a cut paraffin section can affect immunoreactivity. Stability thresholds vary widely among published literature and are antigen-dependent. Best practice is for paraffin sections to be cut fresh.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Belei OA, Heredea ER, Boeriu E, et al: Verner-Morrison syndrome. Literature review. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2017;58(2):371–376

2. Dimitriadis GK, Weickert MO, et al: Medical management of secretory syndromes related to gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Endocr Relat Cancer 2016;23(9):R423-436

3. Smet PJ, Moore KH, Jonavicius J: Distribution and colocalization of calcitonin gene-related peptide, tachykinins, and vasoactive intestinal peptide in normal and idiopathic unstable human urinary bladder. Lab Invest 1997;77(1):37-49