Test Catalog

Test ID: SOX10    
SOX10 Immunostain, Technical Component Only

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

SOX10 is a nuclear transcription factor that plays an important role in schwannian and melanocytic cell differentiation, and has been shown to be a useful marker in the diagnosis of melanocytic and schwannian tumors. SOX10 is expressed in benign melanocytic naevi and melanomas, including desmoplastic melanoma and spindle cell melanoma. It is also expressed by tumors with schwannian differentiation, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, Schwannomas, and neurofibromas. SOX10 is expressed in normal tissues, including Schwann cells, melanocytes, and myoepithelial cells of salivary, bronchial, and mammary glands.

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

This test includes only technical performance of the stain (no pathologist interpretation is performed). Mayo Clinic cannot provide an interpretation of tech only stains outside the context of a pathology consultation. If an interpretation is needed, refer to PATHC / Pathology Consultation for a full diagnostic evaluation or second opinion of the case. All material associated with the case is required. Additional specific stains may be requested as part of the pathology consultation, and will be performed as necessary at the discretion of the Mayo pathologist.


The positive and negative controls are verified as showing appropriate immunoreactivity and documentation is retained at Mayo Clinic Rochester. If a control tissue is not included on the slide, a scanned image of the relevant quality control tissue is available upon request. Contact 855-516-8404.


Interpretation of this test should be performed in the context of the patient's clinical history and other diagnostic tests by a qualified pathologist.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Age of a cut paraffin section can affect immunoreactivity. Stability thresholds vary widely among published literature and are antigen-dependent. Best practice is for paraffin sections to be cut within 6 weeks.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Ramos-Herberth FI, Karamchandani J, Kim J, Dadras SS: SOX10 immunostaining distinguishes desmoplastic melanoma from excision scar. J Cutan Pathol 2010;37:944-9522

2. Blochin E, Nonaka D: Diagnostic value of Sox10 immunohistochemical staining for the detection of metastatic melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes. Histopathology 2009;55:626-628

3. Flammiger A, Besch R, Cook AL, et al: SOX9 and SOX10 but not BRN2 are required for nestin expression in human melanoma cells. J Invest Dermatol 2009;129:945-953

4. Nonaka D, Chiriboga L, Rubin BP: Sox10: a pan-schwannian and melanocytic marker. Am J Surg Pathol 2008;32(9):1291-1298