Test Catalog

Test ID: GLYP3    
Glypican-3 Immunostain, Technical Component Only

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Differentiating hepatocellular carcinomas from other malignancies and hepatic adenomas

Testing Algorithm Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For the initial technical component only immunohistochemical (IHC) stain performed, the appropriate bill-only test ID will be reflexed and charged (IHTOI). For each additional technical component only IHC stain performed, an additional bill-only test ID will be reflexed and charged (IHTOA).

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Glypican-3 (GPC3) protein is a member of the glypican family of heparin sulfate proteoglycans that are phosphatidylinositol-anchored to the cytoplasmic membrane. GPC3 acts as a coreceptor for heparin-binding growth factors, which play an important role in cell growth and differentiation. Diagnostically, GPC3 will aid in separating hepatocellular carcinomas from other malignancies and hepatic adenomas. It is expressed in 70% to 90% of hepatocellular carcinomas.

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.


Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

This test does not include pathologist interpretation, only technical performance of the stain. If interpretation is required order PATHC / Pathology Consultation for a full diagnostic evaluation or second opinion of the case.


The positive and negative controls are verified as showing appropriate immunoreactivity and documentation is retained at Mayo Clinic Rochester. If a control tissue is not included on the slide, a scanned image of the relevant quality control tissue is available upon request; call 855-516-8404.


Interpretation of this test should be performed in the context of the patient's clinical history and other diagnostic tests by a qualified pathologist.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Age of a cut paraffin section can affect immunoreactivity. Stability thresholds vary widely among published literature and are antigen dependent. Best practice is for paraffin sections to be cut within 6 weeks.

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Zhang J, Zhang M, Ma H, et al: Overexpression of glypican-3 is a predictor of poor prognosis in hepatocellular carcinoma: An updated meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018;97(2):e11130.

2. Montalbano M, Georgiadis J, Masterson AL: Biology and function of glypican-3 as a candidate for early cancerous transformation of hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2017 Mar;37(3):1291-1300

3. Haruyama Y, Kataoka H: Glypican-3 is a prognostic factor and an immunotherapeutic target in hepatocellular carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol. 2016 Jan 7;22(1):275-283