TEST CATALOG ORDERING & RESULTS SPECIMEN HANDLING CUSTOMER SERVICE EDUCATION & INSIGHTS
Test Catalog

Test ID: EZNT8    
Zinc Transporter 8 (ZnT8) Antibody, Serum

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Clinical distinction of type 1 from type 2 diabetes mellitus

 

Identification of individuals at risk of type 1 diabetes (including high-risk relatives of patients with diabetes, and those with gestational diabetes)

 

Prediction of future need for insulin treatment in adult-onset diabetic patients

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Islet cell autoantibodies have been known to be associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus since the 1970s.(1) Since 1988, several autoantigens against which islet antibodies are directed have been identified. These include the insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA-2), glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65), insulin, and, most recently, the zinc transporter ZnT8. Only 4% to 7% of patients with type 1 diabetes are autoantibody negative, fewer than 10% have only 1 marker, and around 70% have 3 or 4 markers. These findings have been confirmed in multiple specialty laboratories internationally.

 

One or more of these autoantibodies are detected in 93% to 96% of patients with type 1 diabetes, both adults and children. These antibodies are also detectable in relatives of type 1 diabetic patients at risk for developing diabetes, before clinical onset. Because of symptom-onset in adulthood, societal obesity, and initial insulin-independence, some patients with type 1 diabetes are initially diagnosed as having type 2 diabetes,. These patients with either "latent autoimmune diabetes in adulthood" or type 1 diabetes mellitus, may be distinguished from those patients with type 2 diabetes by detection of 1 or more islet autoantibodies, including ZnT8 antibody.(2-5) Patients with gestational diabetes can also be stratified for future diabetes risk by detection of 1 or more islet autoantibodies (including ZnT8 antibody).

Reference Values Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<15.0 U/mL

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Seropositivity for ZnT8 autoantibody (> or =15 IU/mL) is supportive of:

-A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes

-A high risk for future development of diabetes

-A current or future need for insulin therapy in patients with diabetes

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Negative results do not exclude the diagnosis of or future risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus. The risk of developing type 1 diabetes may be stratified further by testing for: 1) antibodies targeting insulin, IA2, and GAD65 and 2) HLA genetic markers. Careful monitoring of hyperglycemia is the mainstay of determining the requirement for insulin therapy

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Bingley PJ: Clinical applications of diabetes antibody testing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:25-33

2. Andersson C, Vaziri-Sani F, Delli A, et al: Triple specificity of ZnT8 autoantibodies in relation to HLA and other islet autoantibodies in childhood and adolescent type 1 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes 2013;14:97-105

3. Dereke J, Nilsson C, Landin-Olsson M, Hillman M: Prevalence of zinc transporter 8 antibodies in gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 2012;29:e436-439

4. Gorus FK, Balti EV, Vermeulen I, et al: Screening for insulinoma antigen 2 and zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies: a cost-effective and age-independent strategy to identify rapid progressors to clinical onset among relatives of type 1 diabetic patients. Clin Exp Immunol 2013;171:82-90

5. Petruzelkova L, Ananieva-Jordanova R, Vcelakova J, et al:  The dynamic changes of zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies in Czech children from the onset of Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 2014;31:165-171