Test Catalog

Test ID: CAIX    
Carbonic Anhydrase IX (CA-IX) Immunostain, Tech Only

Useful For Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma.

Clinical Information Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is a hypoxia-induced protein expressed in the gastrointestinal tract, mainly in the stomach. Expression of CA-IX is useful in the diagnosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and clear cell papillary renal cell carcinoma. It can assist in distinguishing clear cell carcinoma from chromophobe carcinoma, oncocytoma, and several other renal cell carcinomas.

Interpretation Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

This test includes only technical performance of the stain (no pathologist interpretation is performed). If diagnostic consultation by a pathologist is required order PATHC / Pathology Consultation.


The positive and negative controls are verified as showing appropriate immunoreactivity. If a control tissue is not included on the slide, a scanned image of the relevant quality control tissue is available upon request. Contact 855-516-8404.


Interpretation of this test should be performed in the context of the patient's clinical history and other diagnostic tests by a qualified pathologist.

Cautions Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Clinical Reference Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Alshenawy H: Immunohistochemical panel for differentiating renal cell carcinoma with clear and papillary features. J Microsc Ultrastruct 2015;3(2):68-74

2. Genega E, Ghebremichael M, Najarian R, et al: Carbonic anhydrase IX expression in renal neoplasms: correlation with tumor type and grade. Am J Clin Pathol 2010;134(6):873-879

3. Stillebroer A, Mulders P, Boerman O, et al: Carbonic Anhydrase IX in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Implications for Prognosis, Diagnosis, and Therapy. Euro Urol 2010;58(3):75-83

4. Zhanyong B, Lal P, Lu S, et al: Role of carbonic anhydrase IX, alpha-methylacyl coenzyme a racemase, cytokeratin 7, and galectin-3 in the evaluation of renal neoplasms: a tissue microarray immunohistochemical study. Annals of Diag Pathol 2013;17(8)58-62