Test Catalog

Test Id : TOXOC

Toxocara Antibody, IgG, Serum

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in the diagnosis of Toxocara infection

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Toxocara Ab, IgG, S

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Toxocariasis

Toxocara canis

Visceral toxocariasis

Ocular toxocariasis

TOXOC

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Serum

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.2 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis Reject
Gross lipemia Reject

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Frozen (preferred) 30 days
Refrigerated 5 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Aiding in the diagnosis of Toxocara infection

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Toxocariasis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the nematode, Toxocara, of which there are 2 species: Toxocara canis and Toxocaracati. Toxocara eggs are shed in the feces of infected animals and, once in the environment, become infectious within 2 to 4 weeks. Humans are accidental hosts and become infected through ingestion of dirt or contaminated material containing Toxocara eggs. Although uncommon, individuals can also get toxocariasis by eating undercooked or raw meat from infected animals. Upon ingestion, Toxocara eggs hatch and larvae are released, which can penetrate the intestinal wall travel, through the bloodstream, and migrate to a variety of tissues (eg, liver, heart, lungs, brain, muscles, eyes). Although Toxocara larvae do not undergo any further development at these sites, they can cause severe local inflammatory reactions that are the basis of toxocariasis.

 

While the majority of infected people do not have any symptoms, the 2 primary clinical presentations of toxocariasis are visceral larva migrans (visceral toxocariasis) and ocular larva migrans (ocular toxocariasis). Manifestations of toxocariasis reflect parasitic burden, immune response, and resulting inflammation. Symptoms of larva migrans may be characterized by Loffler syndrome (eg, fever, coughing, wheezing, abdominal pain), hepatomegaly, eosinophilia, or irreversible eye problems. Rarely, larvae migrate to the central nervous system, causing eosinophilic meningoencephalitis or granuloma formation. Larvae can also migrate to and penetrate the eye, resulting in ocular toxocariasis, which may lead to retinal scarring, decreased vision, and leukocoria.

 

A recent Toxocara seroprevalence study in the United States showed that approximately 5% of the US population is infected with Toxocara. Globally, toxocariasis is found in many countries, and rates of prevalence can be as high as 40%, particularly in tropical regions where eggs remain viable in the soil. Children and adolescents under the age of 20, as well as dog owners, are at higher risk of infection.

 

Diagnosis of Toxocara infections involves obtaining relevant clinical and exposure history and relies on antibody detection to Toxocara species. Eosinophilia may also be present, more commonly in visceral toxocariasis. Stool examination for ova and parasites is not useful since eggs are not excreted by humans, only by domestic animals. Currently, antibody testing is the only means of confirming a clinical diagnosis. The recommended serologic test for toxocariasis is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using larval-stage antigens. However, a measureable titer does not distinguish between current and past Toxocara infection. Laboratory findings should be correlated with clinical history.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

Negative

 

Reference values apply to all ages.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Positive:

IgG antibodies to Toxocara species detected, suggesting current or past infection. False-positive results may occur in patients with other helminth infections (eg, Ascaris lumbricoides, Schistosoma species, Strongyloides).

 

Negative:

No antibodies to Toxocara species detected. Repeat testing may be considered in patients presenting soon after possible exposure to Toxocara.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

A single negative result does not rule-out infection. Assay sensitivity may be decreased depending on the site of infection, in cases of low parasitic burden, and timing of sample collection relative to exposure. In ocular toxocariasis, Toxocara antibody levels in serum can be low or absent despite clinical disease. Repeat testing should be considered in patients who are at high risk of exposure or infection.

 

False-negative results may occur in severely immunosuppressed patients.

 

Positive results should be interpreted with patient's clinical status and exposure history.

 

Positive results by this assay do not distinguish acute versus remote infection.

 

False-positive results may occur in patients with other helminth infections.

 

This assay uses synthetic antigens derived from Toxocara canis. Studies evaluating the sensitivity of this assay in patients infected with T cati have not been performed.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Smith HV: Antibody reactivity in human toxocariasis. In: Lewis JW, Maizels RM, eds. Toxocara and Toxocariasis: Clinical, Speidemiological, and Molecular Persectives. Institute of Biology and the British Society for Parasitology; 1993:91-109

2. Liu EW, Chastain HM, Shin SH, et al: Seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxocara species in the United States and associated risk factors, 2011-2014. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Jan 6;66(2):206-212

3. Woodhall DM, Fiore AE: Toxocariasis: A Review for Pediatricians. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2014 Jun;3(2):154-159

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Microtiter strip wells are precoated with synthetic Toxocara canis antigens to bind corresponding antibodies of the specimen. After washing the wells to remove all unbound sample material horseradish peroxidase-labeled protein A conjugate is added. This conjugate binds to the captured Toxocara canis-specific antibodies. The immune complex formed by the bound conjugate is visualized by adding tetramethylbenzidine substrate, which gives a blue reaction product. The intensity of this product is proportional to the amount of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies in the specimen. Sulfuric acid is added to stop the reaction. This produces a yellow endpoint color. Absorbance at 450 nm is read using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) microwell plate reader.(Package insert: Gold Standard Diagnostics Toxocara canis ELISA IgG Test Kit. Gold Standard Diagnostics; 11/02/2021)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Tuesday, Thursday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

86682

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
TOXOC Toxocara Ab, IgG, S 40674-4
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
65873 Toxocara Ab, IgG, S 40674-4

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports