Test Catalog

Test Id : MITON

Mitochondrial Nuclear Gene Panel by Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of the subset of mitochondrial disease that results from variants in the nuclear-encoded genes

 

A second-tier test for patients in whom previous targeted gene variant analyses for specific mitochondrial disease-related genes were negative

 

Identifying variants within genes of the nuclear genome that are known to be associated with mitochondrial disease, allowing for predictive testing of at-risk family members

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test includes next-generation sequencing (NGS) and supplemental Sanger sequencing to evaluate for variants in the following genes: AARS2, AASS, ABAT, ABCB7, ACACA, ACAD9, ACO2, AFG3L2, AGK, AIFM1, ALDH3A2, AMPD1, APOPT1, APTX, ATP5A1, ATP5E, ATP5G3, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, BOLA3, C12orf65, CA5A, CHAT, CLPP, COA5, COA6, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, COQ8A (ADCK3), COQ8B (ADCK4), COQ9, COX10, COX14, COX15, COX20, COX4I2, COX6B1, COX7B, CYC1, D2HGDH, DARS2, DGUOK, DLAT, DLD, DNA2, DNAJC19, DNM1L, EARS2, ELAC2, ETFA, ETFB, ETFDH, ETHE1, FARS2, FASTKD2, FBXL4, FH, FOXRED1, FXN, GAMT, GARS, GCDH, GFER, GFM1, HARS2, HIBCH, IARS2, IBA57, IDH2, ISCU, L2HGDH, LARS2, LIAS, LRPPRC, LYRM4, LYRM7, MARS2, MGME1, MICU1, MPC1, MPV17, MRPL3, MRPL44, MRPS16, MRPS22, MTFMT, MTO1, MTPAP, NDUFA1, NDUFA2, NDUFA9, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFAF1, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3, NDUFAF4, NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFB3, NDUFB9, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NFU1, NUBPL, OGDH, OPA1, OPA3, OXCT1, PANK2, PC, PCK2, PDHA1, PDHB, PDHX, PDP1, PDSS1, PDSS2, PNKD, PNPT1, POLG, POLG2, PUS1, RARS2, RMND1, RRM2B, SACS, SARS2, SCO1, SCO2, SDHAF1, SERAC1, SFXN4, SLC19A3, SLC25A1, SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A12, SLC25A19, SLC52A2, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, SUGCT, SURF1, TACO1, TARS2, TAZ, TIMM8A, TIMM44, TK2, TMEM126A, TMEM70, TPK1, TRAP1, TRMU, TSFM, TTC19, TUFM, TWNK (C10orf2), TYMP, UQCRB, UQCRC2, UQCRQ, VARS2, XPNPEP3, and YARS2.

 

See Targeted Genes Interrogated by Mitochondrial Nuclear Gene Panel in Special Instructions for details regarding the targeted gene regions identified by this test.

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture testing will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

 

See Neuromuscular Myopathy Testing Algorithm

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Custom Sequence Capture and Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Sanger Sequencing when appropriate

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Mitochondrial Nuclear Gene Panel

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Next Gen Sequencing Test

Mitochondrial disease

Mitochondrial nuclear genes

Leigh syndrome

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency

Barth syndrome

Complex I deficiency

Complex II deficiency

Complex III deficiency

Complex IV deficiency

Complex V deficiency

Pyruvate Dehydrogenase deficiency

MNGIE

Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy

Cytochrome c Oxidase deficiency

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture testing will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

 

See Neuromuscular Myopathy Testing Algorithm

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

3. To ensure minimum volume and concentration of DNA is met, the preferred volume of blood must be submitted. Testing may be canceled if DNA requirements are inadequate.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

 

Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblasts

Container/Tube: T-75 or T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 1 full T-75 or 2 full T-25 flasks

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated <24 hours

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Supplies: Fibroblast Biopsy Transport Media (T115)

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin.

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

Additional Information: A separate culture charge will be assessed under CULFB / Fibroblast Culture for Biochemical or Molecular Testing. An additional 3 to 4 weeks is required to culture fibroblasts before genetic testing can occur.

 

Specimen Type: Tissue biopsy

Supplies: Muscle Biopsy Kit (T541)

Collection Instructions: Prepare and transport specimen per instructions in Muscle Biopsy Specimen Preparation

Specimen Volume: 10-80 mg

Specimen Stability Information: Frozen (preferred)/Ambient/Refrigerated

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Biochemical Disorders Patient Information (T527) in Special Instructions.

3. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Neurology Specialty Testing Client Test Request (T732) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 1 mL

Tissue Biopsy: 200 mg

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of the subset of mitochondrial disease that results from variants in the nuclear-encoded genes

 

A second-tier test for patients in whom previous targeted gene variant analyses for specific mitochondrial disease-related genes were negative

 

Identifying variants within genes of the nuclear genome that are known to be associated with mitochondrial disease, allowing for predictive testing of at-risk family members

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test includes next-generation sequencing (NGS) and supplemental Sanger sequencing to evaluate for variants in the following genes: AARS2, AASS, ABAT, ABCB7, ACACA, ACAD9, ACO2, AFG3L2, AGK, AIFM1, ALDH3A2, AMPD1, APOPT1, APTX, ATP5A1, ATP5E, ATP5G3, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, BOLA3, C12orf65, CA5A, CHAT, CLPP, COA5, COA6, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, COQ8A (ADCK3), COQ8B (ADCK4), COQ9, COX10, COX14, COX15, COX20, COX4I2, COX6B1, COX7B, CYC1, D2HGDH, DARS2, DGUOK, DLAT, DLD, DNA2, DNAJC19, DNM1L, EARS2, ELAC2, ETFA, ETFB, ETFDH, ETHE1, FARS2, FASTKD2, FBXL4, FH, FOXRED1, FXN, GAMT, GARS, GCDH, GFER, GFM1, HARS2, HIBCH, IARS2, IBA57, IDH2, ISCU, L2HGDH, LARS2, LIAS, LRPPRC, LYRM4, LYRM7, MARS2, MGME1, MICU1, MPC1, MPV17, MRPL3, MRPL44, MRPS16, MRPS22, MTFMT, MTO1, MTPAP, NDUFA1, NDUFA2, NDUFA9, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFAF1, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3, NDUFAF4, NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFB3, NDUFB9, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NFU1, NUBPL, OGDH, OPA1, OPA3, OXCT1, PANK2, PC, PCK2, PDHA1, PDHB, PDHX, PDP1, PDSS1, PDSS2, PNKD, PNPT1, POLG, POLG2, PUS1, RARS2, RMND1, RRM2B, SACS, SARS2, SCO1, SCO2, SDHAF1, SERAC1, SFXN4, SLC19A3, SLC25A1, SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A12, SLC25A19, SLC52A2, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, SUGCT, SURF1, TACO1, TARS2, TAZ, TIMM8A, TIMM44, TK2, TMEM126A, TMEM70, TPK1, TRAP1, TRMU, TSFM, TTC19, TUFM, TWNK (C10orf2), TYMP, UQCRB, UQCRC2, UQCRQ, VARS2, XPNPEP3, and YARS2.

 

See Targeted Genes Interrogated by Mitochondrial Nuclear Gene Panel in Special Instructions for details regarding the targeted gene regions identified by this test.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For skin biopsy or cultured fibroblast specimens, fibroblast culture testing will be performed at an additional charge. If viable cells are not obtained, the client will be notified.

 

See Neuromuscular Myopathy Testing Algorithm

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

The mitochondrion occupies a unique position in eukaryotic biology. It is the site of energy metabolism, and it is the sole subcellular organelle that is composed of proteins derived from 2 genomes, mitochondrial and nuclear. A group of hereditary disorders due to variants in either the mitochondrial genome or nuclear mitochondrial genes has been well characterized.

 

The diagnosis of mitochondrial disease can be particularly challenging as the presentation can occur at any age, involve virtually any organ system, and be associated with widely varying severities. Due to the considerable overlap in the clinical phenotypes of various mitochondrial disorders, it is often difficult to distinguish these specific inherited disorders without genetic testing. This test utilizes massively parallel sequencing, also termed next-generation sequencing (NGS), to analyze 176 nuclear-encoded genes implicated in mitochondrial disease. The utility of this test is to assist in the diagnosis of the subset of mitochondrial diseases that result from variants in the nuclear encoded genes. This includes disorders of mitochondrial protein synthesis, disorders of coenzyme Q10 biosynthesis, disorders of the respiratory chain complexes and disorders of mtDNA maintenance (ie, mitochondrial DNA depletion disorders).

 

See Targeted Genes Interrogated by Mitochondrial Nuclear Gene Panel in Special Instructions for details regarding the targeted genes identified by this test.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Clinical Correlations:

A small percentage of individuals who have involvement of 1 of more of the genes on the panel may have a variant that is not identified by the methods performed (eg, large deletions/duplications, promoter alterations, deep intronic alterations). The absence of a variant, therefore, does not eliminate the possibility of a mitochondrial disease. Variants responsible for mitochondrial disorders encoded by the mitochondrial genome will not be detected with this assay. For predictive testing of asymptomatic individuals, it is important to first document the presence of a gene variant in an affected family member.

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Misinterpretation of results may occur if the information provided is inaccurate or incomplete.

 

Technical Limitations:

In some cases, DNA variants of undetermined significance may be identified.

 

Rare alterations exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

  

Evaluation Tools:

Multiple in-silico evaluation tools were used to assist in the interpretation of these results. These tools are updated regularly; therefore, changes to these algorithms may result in different predictions for a given alteration. Additionally, the predictability of these tools for the determination of pathogenicity is currently unvalidated.

 

Unless reported or predicted to cause disease, alterations in protein coding genes that do not result in an amino acid substitution are not reported. These and common polymorphisms identified for this patient are available upon request.

 

Reclassification of Variants-Policy:

At this time, it is not standard practice for the laboratory to systematically review likely deleterious alterations or variants of uncertain significance that have been previously detected and reported. The laboratory encourages health care providers to contact the laboratory at any time to learn how the status of a particular variant may have changed over time.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Richards CS, Nazneen A, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med. 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Munnich A, Rotig A, Cormier-Daire V, Rustin P: Clinical presentation of respiratory chain deficiency. In: Valle D, Antonarakis S, Ballabio A, Beaudet AL, Mitchell GA, eds. The Metabolic and Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. McGraw-Hill Education; 2019. Accessed September 28, 2020.  https://ommbid.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=2709&sectionid=225086827

3. Wong LJ: Molecular genetics of mitochondrial disorders. Dev Disabil Res. Rev 2010 Jun;16(2):154-162

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) and/or Sanger sequencing is performed to test for the presence of a mutation in the following genes: AARS2, AASS, ABAT, ABCB7, ACACA, ACAD9, ACO2, AFG3L2, AGK, AIFM1, ALDH3A2, AMPD1, APOPT1, APTX, ATP5A1, ATP5E, ATP5G3, ATPAF2, AUH, BCS1L, BOLA3, C12orf65, CA5A, CHAT, CLPP, COA5, COA6, COQ2, COQ4, COQ6, COQ8A (ADCK3), COQ8B (ADCK4), COQ9, COX10, COX14, COX15, COX20, COX4I2, COX6B1, COX7B, CYC1, D2HGDH, DARS2, DGUOK, DLAT, DLD, DNA2, DNAJC19, DNM1L, EARS2, ELAC2, ETFA, ETFB, ETFDH, ETHE1, FARS2, FASTKD2, FBXL4, FH, FOXRED1, FXN, GAMT, GARS, GCDH, GFER, GFM1, HARS2, HIBCH, IARS2, IBA57, IDH2, ISCU, L2HGDH, LARS2, LIAS, LRPPRC, LYRM4, LYRM7, MARS2, MGME1, MICU1, MPC1, MPV17, MRPL3, MRPL44, MRPS16, MRPS22, MTFMT, MTO1, MTPAP, NDUFA1, NDUFA2, NDUFA9, NDUFA10, NDUFA11, NDUFA12, NDUFAF1, NDUFAF2, NDUFAF3, NDUFAF4, NDUFAF5, NDUFAF6, NDUFB3, NDUFB9, NDUFS1, NDUFS2, NDUFS3, NDUFS4, NDUFS6, NDUFS7, NDUFS8, NDUFV1, NDUFV2, NFU1, NUBPL, OGDH, OPA1, OPA3, OXCT1, PANK2, PC, PCK2, PDHA1, PDHB, PDHX, PDP1, PDSS1, PDSS2, PNKD, PNPT1, POLG, POLG2, PUS1, RARS2, RMND1, RRM2B, SACS, SARS2, SCO1, SCO2, SDHAF1, SERAC1, SFXN4, SLC19A3, SLC25A1, SLC25A3, SLC25A4, SLC25A12, SLC25A19, SLC52A2, SUCLA2, SUCLG1, SUGCT, SURF1, TACO1, TARS2, TAZ, TIMM8A, TIMM44, TK2, TMEM126A, TMEM70, TPK1, TRAP1, TRMU, TSFM, TTC19, TUFM, TWNK (C10orf2), TYMP, UQCRB, UQCRC2, UQCRQ, VARS2, XPNPEP3, and YARS2.

 

There are regions of the genes COX10, COX20, NDUFV2, and TSFM that cannot be effectively sequenced as a result of technical limitations of the assay. Regions of homology, high GC-rich content, and repetitive sequences may not provide accurate sequence. Therefore, all reported alterations detected by NGS are confirmed by an independent reference method. However, this does not rule out the possibility of a false-negative result in these regions. Sanger sequencing is used to confirm alterations detected by NGS when appropriate.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Varies

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

8 to 10 weeks

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available); Extracted DNA: Indefinitely

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81440

88233-Tissue culture, skin or solid tissue biopsy (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
MITON Mitochondrial Nuclear Gene Panel In Process
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
40220 Result Summary 50397-9
40221 Result 82939-0
40222 Interpretation 69047-9
40223 Additional Information 48767-8
40224 Specimen 31208-2
40225 Source 31208-2
40226 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports