Test Catalog

Test Id : SBWB

Antimony, Blood

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Determining antimony toxicity

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Antimony, B

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Sb (Antimony)

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Whole blood

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.

Supplies: Greiner Bio-One Vacuette Tube 6 mL NH Trace Elements Sodium Heparin tube (T819)

Container/Tube: Greiner Bio-One Vacuette Tube 6 mL NH Trace Elements Sodium Heparin tube for blood is required. Becton-Dickinson (BD) royal blue-top tubes are not acceptable for this testing.

Specimen Volume: 0.8 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.

2. Send specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

0.25 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

Gross hemolysis OK
Gross lipemia OK
Gross icterus    OK

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Whole blood Refrigerated (preferred) 7 days

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Determining antimony toxicity

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Antimony is a silvery white metal that is used in alloys for lead batteries, solder, sheet metal, bearings, castings, ammunition, and pewter. It is also used for pigments, abrasives, flame-proofing fabrics, and in medications (ie, sodium stibogluconate [Pentostam], which is used to treat cutaneous leishmaniasis).(1) Antimony typically enters the environment during mining, processing of ores, emissions from coal-burning power plants, and production of alloys. Exposure to antimony can occur through inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact with soil, water, foods, or medications that contain it. In the workplace, exposure is usually via inhalation. OSHA has set a limit of 0.5 mg/m(3) of antimony in workroom air to protect workers during an 8-hour work shift (40-hour workweek).(2)

 

Absorption of antimony through the lungs may take days to weeks. Absorption of antimony from ingestion typically enters the blood within a few hours.(2) The amount and form of the antimony affects how much is absorbed. Once in the blood, antimony is distributed to the liver, lungs, intestines, and spleen. Elimination is primarily through the urine, occurring over several weeks. The half-life varies depending on the chemical form. Trivalent antimony is primarily bound to erythrocytes, while pentavalent antimony is primarily found in plasma, which makes whole blood the preferred specimen to analyze for acute intoxication. Whole blood concentrations in healthy subjects not exposed to antimony averaged 0.7 mcg/L and usually don't exceed 2 mcg/L.(3) In battery plant workers, median blood antimony concentrations of 2.6 mcg/L were found in metal casters and 10 mcg/L in metal formers.(4)

 

The effects of acute or chronic antimony poisoning are similar to arsenic and include abdominal pain, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, dermatitis, and visual disturbances.(1) Additionally, toxicity can include pneumoconiosis, and altered electrocardiograms.(2)

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

<3 ng/mL (unexposed)

3-10 ng/mL (exposed)

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

Normal blood concentrations are 0.7-2 ng/mL in the unexposed, and 2.6-10 ng/mL in exposed workers.(3)

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

No significant cautionary statements

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Baselt R: Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. 10th ed. Biomedical Publications; 2014

2. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry: Toxicological profile for antimony and compounds. US Department of Health and Human Services; October 2019.Accessed May 18, 2020. Available at www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp23.pdf

3. Gebel T, Claussen K, Dunkelberg H: Human biomonitoring of antimony. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998;71(3):221-224

4. Kentner M, Leinemann M, Schaller KH, et al: External and internal antimony exposure in starter battery production. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1995;67(2):119-123

5. Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Antimony (Sb) in whole blood is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in standard mode using lutetium (Lu) as internal standard and a salt matrix calibration. In turn, calibration standards, blanks, and specimens are aspirated by a pneumatic high-pressure nebulizer driven by argon gas. The nebulized solutions suspended in the carrier argon gas stream are directed to and injected into a high temperature argon gas discharge (plasma). This discharge decomposes, atomizes, and ionizes the nebulized particles. All atoms, molecules, and ions formed in the discharge are extracted via a platinum orifice into a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Antimony ions are separated from the concomitants by the quadrupole mass spectrometer. Instrument detector signals from Sb ions are directly proportional to the bulk concentration in the sample.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Wednesday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

1 to 7 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

14 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

83018

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports