Determining molybdenum toxicity
Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metal tests. If either gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.
Preferred: Royal blue top (EDTA) plastic trace element blood collection tube
Specimen Volume: 0.8 mL
1. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport for complete instructions.
2. Send whole blood specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.
|Specimen Type||Temperature||Time||Special Container|
|Whole blood||Refrigerated (preferred)||28 days|
Determining molybdenum toxicity
Molybdenum is an essential trace element and a component of metalloflavoproteins. High concentrations are found in leafy vegetables and legumes. The recommended daily dietary allowance for molybdenum is 45 mcg for adults.(1)
As an industrial metal, molybdenum is used in the manufacturing of steel alloys, lubricants, or pigments. Occupational exposure is generally from inhalation of dusts or fumes. The current threshold limit is 0.5 mg/m(2) for soluble compounds and 3 mg/m(2) (respirable fraction) for the metal and its insoluble compounds.(1)
Oral absorption varies from 28% to 77%. Whole blood concentrations averaged 0.43 mcg/L (range 0.6-4.0 mcg/L) in unexposed individuals.(2) However, exposed adults averaged 2.7 mcg/L (range 1.2-4.8 mcg/L).(3) Once absorbed, molybdenum is primarily eliminated in the urine over 5 or more days.(4)
Molybdenum deficiency can cause irritability, altered levels of consciousness, and a variety of biochemical abnormalities.(5) Toxicity can range from auditory and visual hallucinations, diarrhea, insomnia, painful extremities, and seizures.(6)
<4 ng/mL (unexposed)
<5 ng/mL (exposed)
Normal blood concentrations are 0.6-4.0 ng/mL in unexposed individuals and 1.2-4.8 ng/mL in exposed individuals.(4)
To avoid contamination during specimen collection, it is essential to follow collection procedures as outlined in Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport.
1. Baselt R: Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals In Man. 10th ed. Biomedical Publications; 2014
2. Heitland P, Koster HD: Biomonitoring of 37 trace elements in blood samples from inhabitants of northern Germany by ICP-MS. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2006;20(4):253-262
3. Burguera JL, Burguera M: Molybdenum in human whole blood of adult residents of the Merida State (Venezuela). J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2007;21(3):178-183
4. Werner E, Roth P, Heinrichs U, et al: Internal biokinetic behaviour of molybdenum in humans studied with stable isotopes as tracers. Isotopes Environ Health Stud. 2000;36(2):123-132
5. Abumrad NN, Schneider AJ, Steel D, Rogers LS: Amino acid intolerance during prolonged total parenteral nutrition reversed by molybdate therapy. Am J Clin Nutr. 1981 Nov;34(11):2551-2559
6. Momcilovic B: A case report of acute human molybdenum toxicity from a dietary molybdenum supplement--a new member of the "Lucor metallicum" family. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 1999 Sep;50(3):289-297
7. Gebel T, Claussen K, Dunkelberg H: Human biomonitoring of antimony. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1998;71(3):221-224
8. Roberts NB, Taylor A, Sodi R: Vitamins and trace elements. Rifai N, Horvath AR, Wittwer CT, eds: Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 6th ed. Elsevier; 2018:chap 37
The metal of interest is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.(Unpublished Mayo method)
This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.
|Test Id||Test Order Name||Order LOINC Value|
|Result Id||Test Result Name||
Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.