Test Catalog

Test Id : GAL14

Galactosemia Gene Analysis, 14-Mutation Panel, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Second-tier test for confirming a diagnosis of galactosemia (indicated by enzymatic testing or newborn screening)

 

Carrier testing family members of an affected individual of known genotype (has mutations included in the panel)

 

Resolution of Duarte variant and Los Angeles (LA) variant genotypes

Highlights

Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase (GALT) enzyme analysis is recommended as a first-tier test. See GALT/ Galactose-1-Phosphate Uridyltransferase (GALT), Blood for more information

 

This test is recommended for individuals with an enzyme value less than 24.5 nmol/h/mg of hemoglobin.

 

Testing can be used to confirm a diagnosis of or for carrier screening for galactosemia.

 

If results of the GALT enzyme analysis and this test are discordant, then GALTM / GALT Gene, Full Gene Analysis, Varies could be considered.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Tests for the presence of the following 14 mutations in the GALT gene: -119_-116delGTCA, D98N, S135L, T138M, M142K, F171S, Q188R, L195P, Y209C, K285N, N314D, Q344K, c.253-2A>G, and 5 kb deletion.

 

See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)-Based Assay Utilizing the Agena Mass ARRAY Platform

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Galactosemia Gene Analysis

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Galactosemia

GALT

Duarte

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Tests for the presence of the following 14 mutations in the GALT gene: -119_-116delGTCA, D98N, S135L, T138M, M142K, F171S, Q188R, L195P, Y209C, K285N, N314D, Q344K, c.253-2A>G, and 5 kb deletion.

 

See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of draw.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Multiple whole blood tests for galactosemia can be performed on 1 specimen. Prioritize order of testing when submitting specimens. See Galactosemia-Related Test List in Special Instructions for a list of tests that can be ordered together.

 

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Preferred:

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Frozen/Refrigerated

 

Acceptable:

Specimen Type: Blood spot

Supplies: Card - Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper)

Acceptable: Ahlstrom 226 filter paper or Blood Spot Collection Card

Specimen Volume: 2 to 5 Blood spots

Collection Instructions:

1. An alternative blood collection option for a patient >1 year of age is finger stick.

2. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for 3 hours.

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions in Special Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777) in Special Instructions.

3. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800) in Special Instructions.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521) in Special Instructions

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 1 mL

Blood Spots: 3

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated by Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Ambient (preferred)
Frozen
Refrigerated

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Second-tier test for confirming a diagnosis of galactosemia (indicated by enzymatic testing or newborn screening)

 

Carrier testing family members of an affected individual of known genotype (has mutations included in the panel)

 

Resolution of Duarte variant and Los Angeles (LA) variant genotypes

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Tests for the presence of the following 14 mutations in the GALT gene: -119_-116delGTCA, D98N, S135L, T138M, M142K, F171S, Q188R, L195P, Y209C, K285N, N314D, Q344K, c.253-2A>G, and 5 kb deletion.

 

See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Classical galactosemia is an autosomal recessive disorder of galactose metabolism caused by mutations in the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) gene. The complete or near complete deficiency of the GALT enzyme is life threatening. If left untreated, complications include liver failure, sepsis, intellectual disability, and death. Galactosemia is treated by a galactose-free diet, which allows for rapid recovery from the acute symptoms and a generally good prognosis. Despite adequate treatment from an early age, children with galactosemia remain at increased risk for developmental delays, speech problems, and abnormalities of motor function. Females with galactosemia are at increased risk for premature ovarian failure. The prevalence of classic galactosemia is approximately 1 in 30,000.

 

Duarte variant galactosemia (compound heterozygosity for the Duarte mutation, N314D and -119_-116delGTCA in cis [on the same chromosome], and a classic mutation in trans [on the opposite chromosome]) is generally associated with higher levels of enzyme activity (5%-20%) than classic galactosemia (<5%); however, this may be indistinguishable by newborn screening assays. Typically, individuals with Duarte variant galactosemia have a milder phenotype but are also often treated with a low-galactose diet during infancy. The Los Angeles (LA) variant, which consists of N314D without the presence of -119_-116delGTCA, is associated with normal levels of GALT enzyme activity.

 

Newborn screening, which identifies potentially affected individuals by measuring total galactose (galactose and galactose-1-phosphate) and/or determining the activity of the GALT enzyme, varies from state to state. The diagnosis of galactosemia is established by follow-up quantitative measurement of GALT enzyme activity. If enzyme levels are indicative of carrier or affected status, molecular testing for common GALT mutations may be performed. If 1 or both disease-causing mutations are not detected by targeted mutation analysis and biochemical testing has confirmed the diagnosis of galactosemia, sequencing of the GALT gene is available to identify private mutations.

 

The GALT gene maps to 9p13. Several disease-causing mutations are common in patients with classic galactosemia (G/G genotype). The most frequently observed is the Q188R classic mutation. This mutation accounts for 60% to 70% of classical galactosemia alleles. The S135L mutation is the most frequently observed mutation in African Americans and accounts for approximately 50% of the mutant alleles in this population. The K285N mutation is common in those of eastern European descent and accounts for 25% to 40% of the alleles in this population. The L195P mutation is observed in 5% to 7% of classical galactosemia. The 5 kb deletion is common in individuals of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. The Duarte mutation (N314D and -119_-116delGTCA) is observed in 5% of the general United States population. The rest of the mutations detected by this method (ie, D98N, S135L, T138M, M142K, F171S, Y209C, and Q344K) are all uncommon, but known to be recurrent in the general population.

 

These mutations, in addition to the LA variant, are included in GAL14 / Galactosemia Gene Analysis (14-Mutation Panel) and in GCT / Galactosemia Reflex, Blood. See Galactosemia Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions for additional information. Refer to Galactosemia: Current Testing Strategy and Aids for Test Selection, Mayo Clinic Laboratories Communique 2005 May;30(5) for more information regarding diagnostic strategy.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An interpretative report will be provided.

 

Results should be interpreted in the context of biochemical results.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

This assay will not detect all of the mutations that cause galactosemia. Therefore, the absence of a detectable mutation does not rule out the possibility that an individual is a carrier of or affected with this disease.

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in our interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.

 

Rare polymorphisms exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

 

In rare cases, DNA alterations of undetermined significance may be identified.

  

Many disorders may present with symptoms similar to those associated with galactosemia. Therefore, biochemical testing is recommended to establish the diagnosis of galactosemia prior to DNA analysis.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Elsas LJ 2nd, Lai K: The molecular biology of galactosemia. Genet Med 1998 Nov-Dec;1(1):40-48

2. Kaye CI, Committee on Genetics, Accurso F, et al: Newborn screening fact sheets. Pediatrics 2006 Sep;118(3):e934-963

3. Novelli G, Reichardt JK: Molecular basis of disorders of human galactose metabolism: past, present, and future. Mol Genet Metab 2000 Sep-Oct;71(1-2):62-65

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

A PCR-based assay utilizing Agena Mass Array platform is used to test for the presence of the following 14 mutations in the GALT gene: -119_-116delGTCA, D98N, S135L, T138M, M142K, F171S, Q188R, L195P, Y209C, K285N, N314D, Q344K, c.253-2A>G, and 5 kb deletion.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

8 to 14 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available) Extracted DNA: 3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81401-GALT (galactose-I-phosphate uridylyltransferase) (eg, galactosemia), full gene sequence

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GAL14 Galactosemia Gene Analysis 42318-6
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
52878 Result Summary 50397-9
52879 Result 82939-0
52880 Interpretation 69047-9
52881 Specimen 31208-2
52882 Source 31208-2
52883 Method 85069-3
52884 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports