Test Catalog

Test Id : ATHAL

Alpha-Globin Gene Analysis, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia

 

Prenatal diagnosis of deletional alpha-thalassemia

 

Carrier screening for individuals from high-risk populations for alpha-thalassemia

 

This test is not useful for diagnosis or confirmation of beta-thalassemia or hemoglobinopathies.

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test is for genetic deletions and duplications only.

Profile Information
A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
ATHL Alpha-Globin Gene Analysis (ATHL) No Yes

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULAF Amniotic Fluid Culture/Genetic Test Yes No
MATCC Maternal Cell Contamination, B Yes No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For prenatal specimens only: If amniotic fluid (nonconfluent cultured cells) is received, amniotic fluid culture will be added at an additional charge. For any prenatal specimen that is received, maternal cell contamination studies will be added.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Dosage Analysis by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)/Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA)/Luminex Technology

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Alpha-Globin Gene Analysis

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Alpha Globin

Alpha Thalassemia

HBA1

Hemoglobin Bart

Hemoglobin-H Disease

Hydrops Fetalis

Thalassemia, Alpha

Alpha-Thalassemia

HBA2

AGPB

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For prenatal specimens only: If amniotic fluid (nonconfluent cultured cells) is received, amniotic fluid culture will be added at an additional charge. For any prenatal specimen that is received, maternal cell contamination studies will be added.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Ordering Guidance

This assay cannot be performed on chorionic villus specimens.

 

Point alterations are not detected by this assay. For detection of single point and other nondeletion variants, order WASEQ / Alpha Globin Gene Sequencing, Varies if clinically indicated.

Additional Testing Requirements

All prenatal specimens must be accompanied by a maternal blood specimen; order MATCC / Maternal Cell Contamination, Molecular Analysis, Varies on the maternal specimen.

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

 

Submit only 1 of the following specimens:

 

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube. Do not aliquot.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred) 4 days/Refrigerated

 

Prenatal Specimens

Due to the complexity of prenatal testing, consultation with the laboratory is required for all prenatal testing.

 

Specimen Type: Amniotic fluid

Container/Tube: Amniotic fluid container

Specimen Volume: 20 mL

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient

 

Acceptable:

Specimen Type: Confluent cultured cells

Container/Tube: T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 2 Flasks

Collection Instructions: Submit confluent cultured cells from another laboratory.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521) in Special Instructions

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

Blood: 1 mL; Amniotic Fluid: 10 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies (preferred)

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnosis of alpha-thalassemia

 

Prenatal diagnosis of deletional alpha-thalassemia

 

Carrier screening for individuals from high-risk populations for alpha-thalassemia

 

This test is not useful for diagnosis or confirmation of beta-thalassemia or hemoglobinopathies.

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

This test is for genetic deletions and duplications only.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

For prenatal specimens only: If amniotic fluid (nonconfluent cultured cells) is received, amniotic fluid culture will be added at an additional charge. For any prenatal specimen that is received, maternal cell contamination studies will be added.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

The thalassemias are a group of inherited conditions characterized by decreased synthesis of one or more of the globin chains, resulting in an imbalance in the relative amounts of the alpha and beta chains. The excess normal chains precipitate in the cell, damaging the membrane and leading to premature red blood cell destruction. Additionally, the defect in hemoglobin synthesis produces a hypochromic, microcytic anemia. The frequency of thalassemia is due to the protective advantage against malaria that it gives carriers. Consequently, thalassemias are prevalent in populations from equatorial regions in the world where malaria is endemic.

 

Alpha-thalassemia is caused by decreased synthesis of alpha-globin chains. Four alpha-globin genes are normally present (2 on each chromosome 16). One, 2, 3, or 4 alpha-globin genes may be deleted or, less commonly, contain variants. Deletions account for approximately 90% of disease-causing alleles in alpha thalassemia. Phenotypically, these deletions result in 4 categories of disease expression:

-Deletion of 1 alpha-chain: Silent carrier state, with a normal phenotype

-Deletion of 2 alpha-chains: Alpha-thalassemia trait (alpha-1 thalassemia), with mild hematologic changes but no major clinical difficulties

-Deletion of 3 alpha-chains: Hemoglobin H disease, which is extremely variable but usually includes anemia due to hemolysis, jaundice, and hepatosplenomegaly

-Deletion of all 4 alpha-chains: Hemoglobin Bart, with hydrops fetalis and almost invariably in utero demise

 

Less frequently, alpha-thalassemia results from single point alterations, such as hemoglobin Constant Spring (HbCS) (HBA2: c.427T >C). Note: these point alterations are not detected by this assay.

 

Alpha-thalassemia occurs in all ethnic groups but is especially common in individuals of Southeast Asian and African ancestry. It is also frequent in individuals of Mediterranean ancestry. The carrier frequency is estimated to be 1 in 20 for Southeast Asians, 1 in 30 for African Americans, and 1 in 30 to 1 in 50 for individuals of Mediterranean ancestry. Both deletional and nondeletional (caused by point alterations) forms of alpha-thalassemia are found in individuals with Mediterranean ancestry. Deletions in cis (deletions on the same chromosome) are rare in African or Mediterranean populations but are prevalent in Asian populations. Couples in which both partners carry deletions in cis are at risk of having a child with the fatal hemoglobin Bart hydrops fetalis syndrome.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

An interpretive report will be provided.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Hemoglobin electrophoresis should usually be done prior to this test to exclude other diagnoses or to identify nondeletion types of alpha-thalassemia.

 

In addition to disease-related probes, the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification technique utilizes probes localized to other chromosomal regions as internal controls. In certain circumstances, these control probes may detect other diseases or conditions for which this test was not specifically intended. Results of the control probes are not normally reported. However, in cases where clinically relevant information is identified, the ordering physician will be informed of the result and provided with recommendations for any appropriate follow-up testing.

 

Rare alterations (ie, polymorphisms) exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

 

Test results should be interpreted in the context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Errors in the interpretation of results may occur if information given is inaccurate or incomplete.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Harteveld CL, Voskamp A, Phylipsen M, et al: Nine unknown rearrangements in 16p13.3 and 11p15.4 causing alpha- and beta-thalassaemia characterized by high resolution multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. J Med Genet. 2005;42:922-931. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2005.033597

2. Harteveld CL, Higgs DR: Alpha-thalassemia. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2010;5:13

3. Bunn HF, Forget BG: Hemoglobin: Molecular, Genetic and Clinical Aspects. WB Saunders Company; 1986

4. Weatherall DJ, Higgs DR, Clegg JB, Hill AS, Nicholls R: Heterogeneity and origins of the alpha-thalassemias. Birth Defects Origi Artic Ser. 1987;23:3-14

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

This test is a direct variant analysis assay. Deletions and duplications within the alpha-globin locus are identified by a multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. Fifteen probes that hybridize throughout the alpha-globin locus from the HS40 promoter region through the 3'HVR region are utilized in order to maximize the information needed to map the approximate location of nearly all DNA deletions that occur. In addition, a polymerase chain reaction-based assay is used to detect the presence of the alpha-3.7 and alpha-4.2 deletions.(Schouten JP, McElgunn CJ, Waaijer R, Zwijnenburg D, Diepvens F, Pals G: Relative quantification of 40 nucleic acid sequences by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jun 15;30[12]:e57. doi: 10.1093/nar/gnf056.)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Twice weekly

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

8 to 12 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available); Extracted DNA: 3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81269

88235-Tissue culture for amniotic fluid (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

81265-Comparative analysis using Short Tandem Repeat (STR) markers; patient and comparative specimen (eg, pre-transplant recipient and donor germline testing, post-transplant non-hematopoietic recipient germline [eg, buccal swab or other germline tissue sample] and donor testing, twin zygosity testing or maternal cell contamination of fetal cells (if appropriate)

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports