Test Catalog

Test Id : REPU

Electrophoresis, Protein, Random, Urine

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identifying monoclonal gammopathies using random urine specimens

Profile Information
A profile is a group of laboratory tests that are ordered and performed together under a single Mayo Test ID. Profile information lists the test performed, inclusive of the test fee, when a profile is ordered and includes reporting names and individual availability.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
RPEU Protein Electrophoresis, Random, U No Yes
PTCON Protein, Total, Random, U No Yes

Reflex Tests
Lists tests that may or may not be performed, at an additional charge, depending on the result and interpretation of the initial tests.

Test Id Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
RIFXU Immunofixation, Random, U No No

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Urine protein electrophoresis alone is not considered an adequate screening for monoclonal gammopathies. If a discrete electrophoresis band is identified, the laboratory will evaluate the urine protein electrophoresis and, if necessary, perform immunofixation at an additional charge.

 

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Laboratory Approach to the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis

-Laboratory Screening Tests for Suspected Multiple Myeloma

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

PTCON: Turbidimetry

RPEU: Agarose Gel Electrophoresis

RIFXU: Immunofixation

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Electrophoresis, Protein, Random, U

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

Bence Jones Urine

Heavy Chains Urine

Immunoelectrophoresis, Urine

Immunofixation Electrophoresis (IFE)

Immunofixation, Urine

Kappa Chains Urine

Lambda Chains Urine

Light Chains Urine

Paraprotein

Special Protein Studies, Urine

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Urine protein electrophoresis alone is not considered an adequate screening for monoclonal gammopathies. If a discrete electrophoresis band is identified, the laboratory will evaluate the urine protein electrophoresis and, if necessary, perform immunofixation at an additional charge.

 

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Laboratory Approach to the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis

-Laboratory Screening Tests for Suspected Multiple Myeloma

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Urine

Ordering Guidance

Random urine specimens may be sufficient for identifying monoclonal proteins, but 24-hour specimens should be used to quantitate and monitor urinary abnormalities. See MPSU / Monoclonal Protein Study, 24 Hour, Urine.

Shipping Instructions

Refrigerate specimen after collection and send refrigerated.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Supplies:

-Urine Container, 60 mL (T313)

-Aliquot Tube, 5 mL (T465)

Submission Container/Tube: Plastic, 60-mL urine bottle and plastic, 5-mL tube

Specimen Volume: 50 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect random urine specimen.

2. Aliquot at least 25-mL specimen in plastic, 60-mL urine bottle and at least 1-mL of specimen in plastic, 5-mL tube.

3. Label specimens appropriately (60-mL bottle for protein electrophoresis and 5-mL tube for protein, total).

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

25 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

  All specimens will be evaluated at Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
Frozen 5 days
Ambient 24 hours

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Identifying monoclonal gammopathies using random urine specimens

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

Urine protein electrophoresis alone is not considered an adequate screening for monoclonal gammopathies. If a discrete electrophoresis band is identified, the laboratory will evaluate the urine protein electrophoresis and, if necessary, perform immunofixation at an additional charge.

 

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Laboratory Approach to the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis

-Laboratory Screening Tests for Suspected Multiple Myeloma

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Urine proteins can be grouped into 5 fractions by protein electrophoresis:

-Albumin

-Alpha-1-globulin

-Alpha-2-globulin

-Beta-globulin

-Gamma-globulin

 

The urine total protein concentration, the electrophoretic pattern, and the presence of a monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain may be characteristic of monoclonal gammopathies such as multiple myeloma, primary systemic amyloidosis, and light-chain deposition disease.

 

The following algorithms are available in Special Instructions:

-Laboratory Approach to the Diagnosis of Amyloidosis

-Laboratory Screening Tests for Suspected Multiple Myeloma

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

PROTEIN, TOTAL

No reference values apply to random urine.

 

ELECTROPHORESIS, PROTEIN

The following fractions, if present, will be reported as mg/dL:

-Albumin

-Alpha-1-globulin

-Alpha-2-globulin

-Beta-globulin

-Gamma-globulin

No reference values apply to random urines.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

A characteristic monoclonal band (M-spike) is often found in the urine of patients with monoclonal gammopathies. The initial identification of an M-spike or an area of restricted migration should be followed by immunofixation to identify the immunoglobulin heavy chains and light chains.

 

Immunoglobulin heavy chain fragments as well as free light chains may be seen in the urine of patients with monoclonal gammopathies.

 

The presence of a monoclonal light chain M-spike of greater than 1 g/24 hours is consistent with a diagnosis of multiple myeloma or macroglobulinemia.

 

The presence of a small amount of monoclonal light chain and proteinuria (total protein >3 g/24 hours) that is predominantly albumin is consistent with primary systemic amyloidosis (AL) and light-chain deposition disease (LCDD).

 

Because patients with AL and LCDD may have elevated urinary protein without an identifiable M-spike, urine protein electrophoresis is not considered an adequate screen for these disorders and immunofixation is also recommended.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Patients suspected of having a monoclonal gammopathy may have a normal urine protein electrophoretic pattern, and these patients should have immunofixation performed.

 

Monoclonal gammopathies are rarely seen in patients younger than 30 years of age.

 

Hemolysis may cause a discrete band on protein electrophoresis, which will be negative on immunofixation.

 

Penicillin may split the albumin band.

 

Radiographic agents may produce an uninterpretable pattern.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Abraham RS, Barnidge DR: Protein analysis in the clinical immunology laboratory. In: Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Schmitz JL, eds. Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology. 8th ed Wiley; 2016:chap 4

2. Keren DF, Humphrey RL: Clinical indications and applications for serum and urine protein electrophoresis and immunofixation. In: Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Schmitz JL, eds. Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology. 8th ed. Wiley; 2016:chap 8

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Urine proteins are separated in an electric field according to their size, shape, and electric charge (Helena Touch). The separation is performed on agarose gels. The proteins are visualized by staining with acid blue and the intensity of staining is quantitated by densitometry (Helena Quick Scan Touch). Multiplying by the urine protein concentration (benzethonium chloride) converts the percentage of protein in each fraction into urine concentration.(Instruction manual: Helena SPIFE Touch. Helena Laboratories, Corp; 11/2016; package insert: Helena SPIFE Touch SPE Pro 277. Helena Laboratories, Corp; 06/2018; Sykes E, Posey Y: Immunochemical characterization of immunoglobulins in serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid. In: Detrick B, Hamilton RG, Schmitz JL, eds. Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology. 8th ed. Wiley; 2016:chap 9)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Total Protein: Monday through Sunday

Protein Electrophoresis: Monday through Friday

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

3 to 5 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

7 days

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test has been modified from the manufacturer's instructions. Its performance characteristics were determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

84156

84166

86335-Immunofixation (if appropriate)

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports