Test Catalog

Test Id : WDZ

Wilson Disease, Full Gene Analysis, Varies

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnostic confirmation of Wilson disease

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Ceruloplasmin, serum copper, and urine copper studies are recommended prior to submitting sample. Test includes next-generation sequencing of exons 1 through 21 and for the common Sardinian promoter mutation. Sanger sequencing may be performed to confirm detected variants.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Wilson Disease Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Name
A short description of the method used to perform the test

Custom Sequence Capture and Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) followed by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and Sanger Sequencing when appropriate

NY State Available
Indicates the status of NY State approval and if the test is orderable for NY State clients.

Yes

Reporting Name
Lists a shorter or abbreviated version of the Published Name for a test

Wilson Disease Full Gene Analysis

Aliases
Lists additional common names for a test, as an aid in searching

ATP7B gene

WDMS

Next Gen Sequencing Test

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Wilson Disease Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.

Specimen Type
Describes the specimen type validated for testing

Varies

Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required
Defines the optimal specimen required to perform the test and the preferred volume to complete testing

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.

Specimen Type: Whole blood

Container/Tube:

Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Additional Information: To ensure minimum volume and concentration of DNA is met, the preferred volume of blood must be submitted. Testing may be canceled if DNA requirements are inadequate.

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Forms

1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521) in Special Instructions

3. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Gastroenterology and Hepatology Client Test Request (T728) with the specimen.

Specimen Minimum Volume
Defines the amount of sample necessary to provide a clinically relevant result as determined by the Testing Laboratory

1 mL

Reject Due To
Identifies specimen types and conditions that may cause the specimen to be rejected

All specimens will be evaluated by Mayo Clinic Laboratories for test suitability.

Specimen Stability Information
Provides a description of the temperatures required to transport a specimen to the performing laboratory, alternate acceptable temperatures are also included

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Ambient (preferred)
Frozen
Refrigerated

Useful For
Suggests clinical disorders or settings where the test may be helpful

Diagnostic confirmation of Wilson disease

Genetics Test Information
Provides information that may help with selection of the correct genetic test or proper submission of the test request

Ceruloplasmin, serum copper, and urine copper studies are recommended prior to submitting sample. Test includes next-generation sequencing of exons 1 through 21 and for the common Sardinian promoter mutation. Sanger sequencing may be performed to confirm detected variants.

Testing Algorithm
Delineates situations when tests are added to the initial order. This includes reflex and additional tests.

See Wilson Disease Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions.

Clinical Information
Discusses physiology, pathophysiology, and general clinical aspects, as they relate to a laboratory test

Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from the body's inability to excrete excess copper. Typically, the liver releases excess copper into the bile. Individuals with WD lack the necessary enzyme that facilitates clearance of copper from the liver to bile. As a result, copper accumulates first in the liver and gradually in other organs. The brain, kidneys, bones, and corneas can also be affected. WD affects approximately 1 in 30,000 people worldwide, with a carrier frequency of approximately 1 in 90 individuals.

 

The primary clinical manifestations of WD are hepatic and neurologic. Hepatic disease can be quite variable, ranging from hepatomegaly or other nonspecific symptoms that mimic viral hepatitis to severe liver damage, such as cirrhosis. Neurologic symptoms of WD can include poor fine-motor coordination, ataxia, and dysphagia. Psychiatric manifestations are reported in approximately 20% of individuals with WD. A characteristic ophthalmologic finding is the Kayser-Fleischer ring. Individuals with WD typically begin to show symptoms of liver dysfunction or neurologic disease in the first or second decade of life. If not treated, WD can cause liver failure, severe brain damage, and even death.

 

A variety of laboratory tests are recommended in the initial evaluation for WD. In approximately 95% of cases, serum ceruloplasmin is below normal. Additionally, patients with WD show decreased copper in serum, increased copper in urine, and significantly elevated copper on liver biopsy. While liver biopsy is not recommended as a first-tier screening test for WD, it can be useful to help interpret discrepant biochemical or molecular results. The other tests should be performed prior to sequence analysis of the ATP7B gene, the gene responsible for WD. More than 300 disease-causing mutations have been identified in the ATP7B gene. Most mutations are family-specific with the exception of the H1069Q mutation, which accounts for greater than 50% of identified disease alleles in the Northern European Caucasian population.

 

See Wilson Disease Testing Algorithm in Special Instructions for additional information.

Reference Values
Describes reference intervals and additional information for interpretation of test results. May include intervals based on age and sex when appropriate. Intervals are Mayo-derived, unless otherwise designated. If an interpretive report is provided, the reference value field will state this.

An interpretive report will be provided.

Interpretation
Provides information to assist in interpretation of the test results

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Cautions
Discusses conditions that may cause diagnostic confusion, including improper specimen collection and handling, inappropriate test selection, and interfering substances

Clinical Correlations:

A small percentage of individuals who are carriers or have a diagnosis of Wilson disease (WD) may have a variant that is not identified by this method (eg, large genomic deletions, promoter variants, deep intronic variants). The absence of a variant, therefore, does not eliminate the possibility of positive carrier status or the diagnosis of WD. For carrier testing, it is important to first document the presence of an ATP7B gene variant in an affected family member.

 

Test results should be interpreted in context of clinical findings, family history, and other laboratory data. Misinterpretation of results may occur if the information provided is inaccurate or incomplete.

 

Technical Limitations:

In some cases, DNA variants of undetermined significance may be identified.

 

Due to the limitations of next-generation sequencing, small deletions and insertions may not be detected by this test. If a diagnosis is still suspected, contact a molecular genetic counselor in the Genomics Laboratory at 800-533-1710 for more information regarding follow-up testing options.

 

Rare variants (ie, polymorphisms) exist that could lead to false-negative or false-positive results. If results obtained do not match the clinical findings, additional testing should be considered.

 

Evaluation Tools:

Multiple in-silico evaluation tools were used to assist in the interpretation of these results. These tools are updated regularly; therefore, changes to these algorithms may result in different predictions for a given alteration. Additionally, the predictability of these tools for the determination of pathogenicity is currently unvalidated.

 

Unless reported or predicted to cause disease, alterations that do not result in an amino acid substitution are not reported.

 

Reclassification of Variants-Policy:

All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance. Currently, it is not standard practice for the laboratory to systematically review likely pathogenic alterations or variants of uncertain significance that are detected and reported. The laboratory encourages healthcare providers to contact the laboratory at any time to learn how the status of a particular variant may have changed over time.

Supportive Data

Ninety-six normal Caucasian specimens were screened for the presence of benign polymorphisms in the ATP7B gene. Selected exons from 21 of these specimens were confirmed by direct sequencing to have at least a single polymorphism. One normal specimen was found to be a carrier of an ATP7B mutation (IVS11-2A>G). Five Wilson disease patients with known ATP7B mutations were sequenced with 100% concordance.

Clinical Reference
Recommendations for in-depth reading of a clinical nature

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. European Association for Study of Liver. EASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Wilson’s disease. J Hepatol 2012 Mar;56(3):671-685

3. Roberts EA, Schilsky ML, American Association for Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD): Diagnosis and treatment of Wilson disease: an update. Hepatology 2008;47(6):2089-2111

4. Mak CM, Lam CW: Diagnosis of Wilson's disease: a comprehensive review. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2008;45(3):263-290

5. Bandmann O, Weiss KH, Kaler SG: Wilson’s disease and other neurological copper disorders. Lancet Neurol 2015 Jan;14(1):103-113

Special Instructions
Library of PDFs including pertinent information and forms related to the test

Method Description
Describes how the test is performed and provides a method-specific reference

Next-generation sequencing is used to test for the presence of a mutation in all coding exons and intron/exon boundaries, as well as a portion of the 5’ untranslated region (UTR), of the ATP7B gene. Sanger sequencing is used to confirm alterations detected by next-generation sequencing when appropriate.(Unpublished Mayo method)

PDF Report
Indicates whether the report includes an additional document with charts, images or other enriched information

No

Day(s) Performed
Outlines the days the test is performed. This field reflects the day that the sample must be in the testing laboratory to begin the testing process and includes any specimen preparation and processing time before the test is performed. Some tests are listed as continuously performed, which means that assays are performed multiple times during the day.

Varies

Report Available
The interval of time (receipt of sample at Mayo Clinic Laboratories to results available) taking into account standard setup days and weekends. The first day is the time that it typically takes for a result to be available. The last day is the time it might take, accounting for any necessary repeated testing.

14 to 20 days

Specimen Retention Time
Outlines the length of time after testing that a specimen is kept in the laboratory before it is discarded

Whole Blood: 2 weeks (if available) Extracted DNA: 3 months

Performing Laboratory Location
Indicates the location of the laboratory that performs the test

Rochester

Fees
Several factors determine the fee charged to perform a test. Contact your U.S. or International Regional Manager for information about establishing a fee schedule or to learn more about resources to optimize test selection.

  • Authorized users can sign in to Test Prices for detailed fee information.
  • Clients without access to Test Prices can contact Customer Service 24 hours a day, seven days a week.
  • Prospective clients should contact their Regional Manager. For assistance, contact Customer Service.

Test Classification
Provides information regarding the medical device classification for laboratory test kits and reagents. Tests may be classified as cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and used per manufacturer instructions, or as products that do not undergo full FDA review and approval, and are then labeled as an Analyte Specific Reagent (ASR) product.

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information
Provides guidance in determining the appropriate Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code(s) information for each test or profile. The listed CPT codes reflect Mayo Clinic Laboratories interpretation of CPT coding requirements. It is the responsibility of each laboratory to determine correct CPT codes to use for billing.

CPT codes are provided by the performing laboratory.

81406

LOINC® Information
Provides guidance in determining the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC) values for the order and results codes of this test. LOINC values are provided by the performing laboratory.

Test Id Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
WDZ Wilson Disease Full Gene Analysis 95781-1
Result Id Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
Applies only to results expressed in units of measure originally reported by the performing laboratory. These values do not apply to results that are converted to other units of measure.
54048 Result Summary 50397-9
54049 Result 82939-0
54050 Interpretation 69047-9
54051 Additional Information 48767-8
54052 Specimen 31208-2
54053 Source 31208-2
54054 Released By 18771-6

Test Setup Resources

Setup Files
Test setup information contains test file definition details to support order and result interfacing between Mayo Clinic Laboratories and your Laboratory Information System.

Excel | Pdf

Sample Reports
Normal and Abnormal sample reports are provided as references for report appearance.

Normal Reports | Abnormal Reports

SI Sample Reports
International System (SI) of Unit reports are provided for a limited number of tests. These reports are intended for international account use and are only available through MayoLINK accounts that have been defined to receive them.

SI Normal Reports | SI Abnormal Reports